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中國堅持通過談判解決中國與菲律賓在南海的有關爭議

2016-7-14 08:22| 發布者: admin| 查看: 20964| 評論: 13|原作者: Damein|來自: 南海研究論壇

摘要: 原文鏈接:http://www.scio.gov.cn/zxbd/tt/Document/1483572/1483572.htm人民網鏈接:http://world.people.com.cn/GB/8212/191606/404231/405843/index.htmlpdf下載:國務院新聞辦公室7月13日發表了《中國堅持通過 ...
pdf下載:book-cn.pdf
國務院新聞辦公室7月13日發表了《中國堅持通過談判解決中國與菲律賓在南海的有關爭議》白皮書。全文如下:
中國堅持通過談判解決中國與菲律賓在南海的有關爭議
(2016年7月)
中華人民共和國
國務院新聞辦公室
  目 錄
  引 言
  一、南海諸島是中國固有領土
  (一)中國對南海諸島的主權是歷史上確立的
  (二)中國始終堅定維護在南海的領土主權和海洋權益
  (三)中國對南海諸島的主權得到國際社會廣泛承認
  二、中菲南海有關爭議的由來
  (一)菲律賓非法侵占行為制造了中菲南沙島礁爭議
  (二)菲律賓的非法主張毫無歷史和法理依據
  (三)國際海洋法制度的發展導致中菲出現海洋劃界爭議
  三、中菲已就解決南海有關爭議達成共識
  (一)通過談判解決南海有關爭議是中菲共識和承諾
  (二)妥善管控南海有關爭議是中菲之間的共識
  四、菲律賓一再采取導致爭議復雜化的行動
  (一)菲律賓企圖擴大對中國南沙群島部分島礁的侵占
  (二)菲律賓一再擴大海上侵權
  (三)菲律賓企圖染指中國黃巖島
  (四)菲律賓單方面提起仲裁是惡意行為
  五、中國處理南海問題的政策
  (一)關于南沙群島領土問題
  (二)關于南海海洋劃界問題
  (三)關于爭端解決方式
  (四)關于在南海管控分歧和開展海上務實合作
  (五)關于南海航行自由和安全
  (六)關于共同維護南海和平穩定
  引 言
  1. 南海位于中國大陸的南面,通過狹窄的海峽或水道,東與太平洋相連,西與印度洋相通,是一個東北-西南走向的半閉海。南海北靠中國大陸和臺灣島,南接加里曼丹島和蘇門答臘島,東臨菲律賓群島,西接中南半島和馬來半島。
  2. 中國南海諸島包括東沙群島、西沙群島、中沙群島和南沙群島。這些群島分別由數量不等、大小不一的島、礁、灘、沙等組成。其中,南沙群島的島礁最多,范圍最廣。
  3. 中國人民在南海的活動已有2000多年歷史。中國最早發現、命名和開發利用南海諸島及相關海域,最早并持續、和平、有效地對南海諸島及相關海域行使主權和管轄。中國對南海諸島的主權和在南海的相關權益,是在漫長的歷史過程中確立的,具有充分的歷史和法理依據。
  4. 中國和菲律賓隔海相望,交往密切,人民世代友好,原本不存在領土和海洋劃界爭議。然而,自20世紀70年代起,菲律賓開始非法侵占南沙群島部分島礁,由此制造了中菲南沙群島部分島礁領土問題。此外,隨著國際海洋法的發展,兩國在南海部分海域還出現了海洋劃界爭議。
  5. 中菲兩國尚未舉行旨在解決南海有關爭議的任何談判,但確曾就妥善處理海上爭議進行多次磋商,就通過談判協商解決有關爭議達成共識,并在雙邊文件中多次予以確認。雙方還在中國和東盟國家2002年共同簽署的《南海各方行為宣言》(以下簡稱《宣言》)中就通過談判協商解決有關爭議作出鄭重承諾。
  6. 2013年1月,菲律賓共和國時任政府違背上述共識和承諾,單方面提起南海仲裁案。菲律賓把原本不屬于《聯合國海洋法公約》(以下簡稱《公約》)調整的領土問題,以及被中國2006年依據《公約》第298條作出的排除性聲明排除的海洋劃界等爭議加以曲解和包裝,構成對《公約》爭端解決機制的濫用。菲律賓妄圖借此否定中國在南海的領土主權和海洋權益。
  7. 本文件旨在還原中菲南海有關爭議的事實真相,重申中國在南海問題上的一貫立場和政策,溯本清源,以正視聽。
  一、南海諸島是中國固有領土
  (一)中國對南海諸島的主權是歷史上確立的
  8. 中國人民自古以來在南海諸島和相關海域生活和從事生產活動。中國最早發現、命名和開發利用南海諸島及相關海域,最早并持續、和平、有效地對南海諸島及相關海域行使主權和管轄,確立了對南海諸島的主權和在南海的相關權益。
  9. 早在公元前2世紀的西漢時期,中國人民就在南海航行,并在長期實踐中發現了南海諸島。
  10. 中國歷史古籍,例如東漢的《異物志》、三國時期的《扶南傳》、宋代的《夢粱錄》和《嶺外代答》、元代的《島夷志略》、明代的《東西洋考》和《順風相送》、清代的《指南正法》和《海國聞見錄》等,不僅記載了中國人民在南海的活動情況,而且記錄了南海諸島的地理位置和地貌特征、南海的水文和氣象特點,以很多生動形象的名稱為南海諸島命名,如“漲海崎頭”、“珊瑚洲”、“九乳螺洲”、“石塘”、“千里石塘”、“萬里石塘”、“長沙”、“千里長沙”、“萬里長沙”等。
  11. 中國漁民在開發利用南海的歷史過程中還形成一套相對固定的南海諸島命名體系:如將島和沙洲稱為“峙”,將礁稱為“鏟”、“線”、“沙”,將環礁稱為“匡”、“圈”、“塘”,將暗沙稱為“沙排”等。明清時期形成的《更路簿》是中國漁民往來于中國大陸沿海地區和南海諸島之間的航海指南,以多種版本的手抄本流傳并沿用至今;記錄了中國人民在南海諸島的生活和生產開發活動,記載了中國漁民對南海諸島的命名。其中對南沙群島島、礁、灘、沙的命名至少有70余處,有的用羅盤方位命名,如丑未(渚碧礁)、東頭乙辛(蓬勃暗沙);有的用特產命名,如赤瓜線(赤瓜礁)、墨瓜線(南屏礁);有的用島礁形狀命名,如鳥串(仙娥礁)、雙擔(信義礁);有的用某種實物命名,如鍋蓋峙(安波沙洲)、秤鉤峙(景宏島);有的以水道命名,如六門沙(六門礁)。
  12. 中國人民對南海諸島的命名,部分被西方航海家引用并標注在一些19至20世紀權威的航海指南和海圖中。如Namyit(鴻庥島)、Sin Cowe(景宏島)、Subi(渚碧礁)來源于海南方言發音“南乙”、“秤鉤”、“丑未”。
  13. 大量歷史文獻和文物資料證明,中國人民對南海諸島及相關海域進行了持續不斷的開發和利用。明清以來,中國漁民每年乘東北信風南下至南沙群島海域從事漁業生產活動,直至次年乘西南信風返回大陸。還有部分中國漁民常年留居島上,站峙捕撈、挖井汲水、墾荒種植、蓋房建廟、飼養禽畜等。根據中外史料記載和考古發現,南沙群島部分島礁上曾有中國漁民留下的作物、水井、房屋、廟宇、墓塚和碑刻等。
  14. 許多外國文獻記錄了很長一段時間內只有中國人在南沙群島生產生活的事實。
  15. 1868年出版的英國海軍部《中國海指南》提到南沙群島鄭和群礁時指出:“海南漁民,以捕取海參、介殼為活,各島都有其足跡,也有久居島礁上的”,“在太平島上的漁民要比其他島上的漁民生活得更加舒適,與其他島相比,太平島上的井水要好得多”。1906年的《中國海指南》以及1912年、1923年、1937年等各版《中國航海志》多處載明中國漁民在南沙群島上生產生活。
  16. 1933年9月在法國出版的《彩繪殖民地世界》雜志記載:南沙群島9島之中,惟有華人(海南人)居住,華人之外并無他國人。當時西南島(南子島)上計有居民7人,中有孩童2人;帝都島(中業島)上計有居民5人;斯帕拉島(南威島)計有居民4人,較1930年且增加1人;羅灣島(南鑰島)上,有華人所留之神座、茅屋、水井;伊都阿巴島(太平島),雖不見人跡,而發現中國字碑,大意謂運糧至此,覓不見人,因留藏于鐵皮(法文原文為石頭)之下;其他各島,亦到處可見漁人居住之蹤跡。該雜志還記載,太平島、中業島、南威島等島嶼上植被茂盛,有水井可飲用,種有椰子樹、香蕉樹、木瓜樹、菠蘿、青菜、土豆等,蓄養有家禽,適合人類居住。
  17. 1940年出版的日本文獻《暴風之島》和1925年美國海軍航道測量署發行的《亞洲領航》(第四卷)等也記載了中國漁民在南沙群島生產生活的情況。
  18. 中國是最早開始并持續對南海諸島及相關海上活動進行管理的國家。歷史上,中國通過行政設治、水師巡視、資源開發、天文測量、地理調查等手段,對南海諸島和相關海域進行了持續、和平、有效的管轄。
  19. 例如,宋代,中國在兩廣地區設有經略安撫使,總綏南疆。宋代曾公亮在《武經總要》中提到中國為加強南海海防,設立巡海水師,巡視南海。清代明誼編著的《瓊州府志》、鐘元棣編著的《崖州志》等著作都把“石塘”、“長沙”列入“海防”條目。
  20. 中國很多官修地方志,如《廣東通志》、《瓊州府志》、《萬州志》等,在“疆域”或“輿地山川”條目中有“萬州有千里長沙、萬里石塘”或類似記載。
  21. 中國歷代政府還在官方地圖上將南海諸島標繪為中國領土。1755年《皇清各直省分圖》之《天下總輿圖》、1767年《大清萬年一統天下圖》、1810年《大清萬年一統地理全圖》、1817年《大清一統天下全圖》等地圖均將南海諸島繪入中國版圖。
  22. 歷史事實表明,中國人民一直將南海諸島和相關海域作為生產和生活的場所,從事各種開發利用活動。中國歷代政府也持續、和平、有效地對南海諸島實施管轄。在長期歷史過程中,中國確立了對南海諸島的主權和在南海的相關權益,中國人民早已成為南海諸島的主人。


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引用 Damein 2016-7-14 00:56
  (二)中國始終堅定維護在南海的領土主權和海洋權益
  23. 中國對南海諸島的主權在20世紀前未遭遇任何挑戰。20世紀30年代至40年代,法國和日本先后以武力非法侵占中國南沙群島部分島礁。對此,中國人民奮起抵抗,當時中國政府采取一系列措施,捍衛對南沙群島的主權。
  24. 1933年,法國曾經一度侵入南沙群島部分島礁,發布政府公報宣告“占領”,制造了“九小島事件”。中國各地各界反應強烈、群起抗議,紛紛譴責法國的侵略行徑。居住在南沙群島的中國漁民也在實地進行抵抗,符洪光、柯家裕、鄭蘭錠等人砍倒法國在太平島、北子島、南威島、中業島等島上懸掛法國國旗的旗桿。
  25. “九小島事件”發生后,中國外交部發言人表示,南沙群島有關島嶼“僅有我漁人居留島上,在國際上確認為中國領土”,中國政府就法方侵入九小島提出嚴正交涉。同時,廣東省政府針對法國誘騙中國漁民懸掛法國國旗,命令各縣長布告,禁止在南沙群島及海域作業的中國漁船懸掛外國旗幟,并給漁民發放中國國旗,要求懸掛。
  26. 由外交部、內政部、海軍部等部門組成的水陸地圖審查委員會,專門審定中國南海諸島各島、礁、灘、沙名稱,并于1935年編印并公布了《中國南海各島嶼圖》。
  27. 日本在侵華戰爭期間曾非法侵占中國南海諸島。中國人民對日本的侵略進行了英勇抵抗。隨著世界反法西斯戰爭和中國人民抗日戰爭的推進,中、美、英三國于1943年12月發表《開羅宣言》鄭重宣布,日本必須將所竊取的中國領土歸還中國。1945年7月,中、美、英三國發表《波茨坦公告》,其中第8條明確規定,“開羅宣言之條件必將實施”。
  28. 1945年8月,日本宣布接受《波茨坦公告》無條件投降。1946年11月至12月,中國政府指派林遵上校等高級軍政官員,乘坐“永興”、“中建”、“太平”、“中業”4艘軍艦,分赴西沙群島和南沙群島,舉行儀式,重立主權碑,派兵駐守。隨后,中國政府用上述4艘軍艦名對西沙群島和南沙群島的4個島嶼進行重新命名。
  29. 1947年3月,中國政府在太平島設立南沙群島管理處,隸屬廣東省。中國還在太平島設立氣象臺和電臺,自6月起對外廣播氣象信息。
  30. 在對南海諸島重新進行地理測繪的基礎上,中國政府于1947年組織編寫了《南海諸島地理志略》,審定《南海諸島新舊名稱對照表》,繪制標有南海斷續線的《南海諸島位置圖》。1948年2月,中國政府公布《中華民國行政區域圖》,包括《南海諸島位置圖》。
  31. 1949年6月,中國政府頒布《海南特區行政長官公署組織條例》,把“海南島、東沙群島、西沙群島、中沙群島、南沙群島及其他附屬島嶼”劃入海南特區。
  32. 中華人民共和國1949年10月1日成立后,多次重申并采取立法、行政設治、外交交涉等措施進一步維護對南海諸島的主權和在南海的相關權益。中國對南海諸島及相關海域的巡邏執法、資源開發和科學考察等活動從未中斷過。
  33. 1951年8月,中國外交部長周恩來發表《關于美英對日和約草案及舊金山會議的聲明》指出,“西沙群島和南威島正如整個南沙群島及中沙群島、東沙群島一樣,向為中國領土,在日本帝國主義發動侵略戰爭時雖曾一度淪陷,但日本投降后已為當時中國政府全部接收”,“中華人民共和國在南威島和西沙群島之不可侵犯的主權,不論美英對日和約草案有無規定及如何規定,均不受任何影響”。
  34. 1958年9月,中國發布《中華人民共和國政府關于領海的聲明》,明確規定中國領海寬度為12海里,采用直線基線方法劃定領海基線,上述規定適用于中華人民共和國的一切領土,包括“東沙群島、西沙群島、中沙群島、南沙群島以及其他屬于中國的島嶼”。
  35. 1959年3月,中國政府在西沙群島的永興島設立“西沙群島、南沙群島、中沙群島辦事處”;1969年3月,該“辦事處”改稱“廣東省西沙群島、中沙群島、南沙群島革命委員會”;1981年10月,恢復“西沙群島、南沙群島、中沙群島辦事處”的稱謂。
  36. 1983年4月,中國地名委員會受權公布南海諸島部分標準地名,總計287個。
  37. 1984年5月,第六屆全國人民代表大會第二次會議決定設立海南行政區,管轄范圍包括西沙群島、南沙群島、中沙群島的島礁及其海域。
  38. 1988年4月,第七屆全國人民代表大會第一次會議決定設立海南省,管轄范圍包括西沙群島、南沙群島、中沙群島的島礁及其海域。
  39. 1992年2月,中國頒布《中華人民共和國領海及毗連區法》,確立了中國領海和毗連區的基本法律制度,并明確規定:“中華人民共和國的陸地領土包括……東沙群島、西沙群島、中沙群島、南沙群島以及其他一切屬于中華人民共和國的島嶼”。1996年5月,第八屆全國人民代表大會常務委員會第十九次會議決定,批準《聯合國海洋法公約》,同時聲明“中華人民共和國重申對1992年2月25日頒布的《中華人民共和國領海及毗連區法》第2條所列各群島及島嶼的主權。”
  40. 1996年5月,中國政府宣布中國大陸沿海由山東高角至海南島峻壁角49個領海基點和由直線相連的領海基線,以及西沙群島28個領海基點和由直線相連的基線,并宣布將另行公布其余領海基線。
  41. 1998年6月,中國頒布《中華人民共和國專屬經濟區和大陸架法》,確立了中國專屬經濟區和大陸架的基本法律制度,并明確規定:“本法的規定不影響中華人民共和國享有的歷史性權利”。
  42. 2012年6月,國務院批準撤銷海南省西沙群島、南沙群島、中沙群島辦事處,設立地級三沙市,管轄西沙群島、中沙群島、南沙群島的島礁及其海域。
  43. 中國高度重視南海生態和漁業資源保護。自1999年起,中國實施南海伏季休漁制度。截至2015年底,中國在南海共建成國家級水生生物自然保護區6處,省級水生生物自然保護區6處,總面積達269萬公頃;國家級水產種質資源保護區7處,總面積達128萬公頃。
  44. 自20世紀50年代以來,中國臺灣當局一直駐守在南沙群島太平島,設有民事服務管理機構,并對島上自然資源進行開發利用。
  (三)中國對南海諸島的主權得到國際社會廣泛承認
  45. 第二次世界大戰結束后,中國收復南海諸島并恢復行使主權,世界上許多國家都承認南海諸島是中國領土。
  46. 1951年,舊金山對日和約會議規定日本放棄對南沙群島和西沙群島的一切權利、權利名義與要求。1952年,日本政府正式表示放棄對臺灣、澎湖列島以及南沙群島、西沙群島之一切權利、權利名義與要求。同年,由時任日本外務大臣岡崎勝男親筆簽字推薦的《標準世界地圖集》第十五圖《東南亞圖》,把和約規定日本必須放棄的西沙、南沙群島及東沙、中沙群島全部標繪屬于中國。
  47. 1955年10月,國際民航組織在馬尼拉召開會議,美國、英國、法國、日本、加拿大、澳大利亞、新西蘭、泰國、菲律賓、南越和中國臺灣當局派代表出席,菲律賓代表為會議主席,法國代表為副主席。會議通過的第24號決議要求中國臺灣當局在南沙群島加強氣象觀測,而會上沒有任何一個代表對此提出異議或保留。
  48. 1958年9月4日,中國政府發布《中華人民共和國政府關于領海的聲明》,宣布中國的領海寬度為12海里,明確指出:“這項規定適用于中華人民共和國的一切領土,包括……東沙群島、西沙群島、中沙群島、南沙群島以及其他屬于中國的島嶼。”9月14日,越南政府總理范文同照會中國國務院總理周恩來鄭重表示,“越南民主共和國政府承認和贊同中華人民共和國政府1958年9月4日關于領海決定的聲明”,“越南民主共和國政府尊重這項決定”。
  49. 1956年8月,美國駐臺機構一等秘書韋士德向中國臺灣當局口頭申請,美軍人員擬前往黃巖島、雙子群礁、景宏島、鴻庥島、南威島等中沙和南沙群島島礁進行地形測量。中國臺灣當局隨后同意了美方的申請。
  50. 1960年12月,美國政府致函中國臺灣當局,“請求準許”美軍事人員赴南沙群島雙子群礁、景宏島、南威島進行實地測量。中國臺灣當局批準了上述申請。
  51. 1972年,在《中華人民共和國政府與日本國政府聯合聲明》中,日本重申堅持遵循《波茨坦公告》第8條規定。
  52. 據法新社報道,1974年2月4日,時任印度尼西亞外長馬利克表示,“如果我們看一看現在發行的地圖,就可以從圖上看到帕拉塞爾群島(西沙群島)和斯普拉特利群島(南沙群島)都是屬于中國的”;由于我們承認只存在一個中國,“這意味著,對我們來講,這些群島屬于中華人民共和國”。
  53. 1987年3月17日至4月1日,聯合國教科文組織政府間海洋學委員會第14次會議討論了該委員會秘書處提交的《全球海平面觀測系統實施計劃1985-1990》(IOC/INF-663 REV)。該文件建議將西沙群島和南沙群島納入全球海平面觀測系統,并將這兩個群島明文列屬“中華人民共和國”。為執行該計劃,中國政府被委任建設5個海洋觀測站,包括南沙群島和西沙群島上各1個。
  54. 南海諸島屬于中國早已成為國際社會的普遍認識。在許多國家出版的百科全書、年鑒和地圖都將南沙群島標屬中國。例如,1960年美國威爾德麥克出版社出版的《威爾德麥克各國百科全書》;1966年日本極東書店出版的《新中國年鑒》;1957、1958和1961年在聯邦德國出版的《世界大地圖集》;1958年在民主德國出版的《地球與地理地圖集》;1968年在民主德國出版的《哈克世界大地圖集》;1954至1959年在蘇聯出版的《世界地圖集》;1957年在蘇聯出版的《外國行政區域劃分》附圖;1959年在匈牙利出版的《世界地圖集》;1974年在匈牙利出版的《插圖本世界政治經濟地圖集》;1959年在捷克斯洛伐克出版的《袖珍世界地圖集》;1977年在羅馬尼亞出版的《世界地理圖集》;1965年法國拉魯斯出版社出版的《國際政治與經濟地圖集》;1969年法國拉魯斯出版社出版的《拉魯斯現代地圖集》;1972年和1983年日本平凡社出版的《世界大百科事典》中所附地圖和1985年出版的《世界大地圖集》;以及1980年日本國土地理協會出版的《世界與各國》附圖等。
  二、中菲南海有關爭議的由來
  55. 中菲南海有關爭議的核心是菲律賓非法侵占中國南沙群島部分島礁而產生的領土問題。此外,隨著國際海洋法制度的發展,中菲在南海部分海域還出現了海洋劃界爭議。
  (一)菲律賓非法侵占行為制造了中菲南沙島礁爭議
  56. 菲律賓的領土范圍是由包括1898年《美西和平條約》(《巴黎條約》)、1900年《美西關于菲律賓外圍島嶼割讓的條約》(《華盛頓條約》)、1930年《關于劃定英屬北婆羅洲與美屬菲律賓之間的邊界條約》在內的一系列國際條約確定的。
  57. 中國南海諸島在菲律賓領土范圍之外。
  58. 20世紀50年代,菲律賓曾企圖染指中國南沙群島。但在中國堅決反對下,菲律賓收手了。1956年5月,菲律賓人克洛馬組織私人探險隊到南沙群島活動,擅自將中國南沙群島部分島礁稱為“自由地”。隨后,菲律賓副總統兼外長加西亞對克洛馬的活動表示支持。對此,中國外交部發言人于5月29日發表聲明,嚴正指出:南沙群島“向來是中國領土的一部分。中華人民共和國對這些島嶼具有無可爭辯的合法主權……絕不容許任何國家以任何借口和采取任何方式加以侵犯”。同時,中國臺灣當局派軍艦赴南沙群島巡弋,恢復在南沙群島太平島上駐守。此后,菲律賓外交部表示,克洛馬此舉菲律賓政府事前并不知情,亦未加以同意。
  59. 自20世紀70年代起,菲律賓先后以武力侵占中國南沙群島部分島礁,并提出非法領土要求。1970年8月和9月,菲律賓非法侵占馬歡島和費信島;1971年4月,菲律賓非法侵占南鑰島和中業島;1971年7月,菲律賓非法侵占西月島和北子島;1978年3月和1980年7月,菲律賓非法侵占雙黃沙洲和司令礁。1978年6月,菲律賓總統馬科斯簽署第1596號總統令,將中國南沙群島部分島礁并連同周邊大范圍海域稱為“卡拉延島群”(“卡拉延”在他加祿語中意為“自由”),劃設“卡拉延鎮區”,非法列入菲律賓領土范圍。
  60. 菲律賓還通過一系列國內立法,提出了自己的領海、專屬經濟區和大陸架等主張。其中部分與中國在南海的海洋權益產生沖突。
  61. 菲律賓為掩蓋其非法侵占中國南沙群島部分島礁的事實,實現其領土擴張的野心,炮制了一系列借口,包括:“卡拉延島群”不屬于南沙群島,是“無主地”;南沙群島在二戰后是“托管地”;菲律賓占領南沙群島是依據“地理鄰近”和出于“國家安全”需要;“南沙群島部分島礁位于菲律賓專屬經濟區和大陸架上”;菲律賓“有效控制”有關島礁已成為不能改變的“現狀”等。
  (二)菲律賓的非法主張毫無歷史和法理依據
  62. 從歷史和國際法看,菲律賓對南沙群島部分島礁的領土主張毫無根據。
  63. 第一,南沙群島從來不是菲律賓領土的組成部分。菲律賓的領土范圍已由一系列國際條約所確定。對此,菲律賓當時的統治者美國是非常清楚的。1933年8月12日,美屬菲律賓前參議員陸雷彝致信美國駐菲律賓總督墨菲,試圖以地理鄰近為由主張一些南沙島嶼構成菲律賓群島一部分。有關信件被轉交美國陸軍部和國務院處理。1933年10月9日,美國國務卿復信稱,“這些島嶼……遠在1898年從西班牙獲得的菲律賓群島的界限之外”。1935年5月,美國陸軍部長鄧恩致函國務卿赫爾,請求國務院就菲律賓對南沙群島部分島嶼提出領土要求的“合法性和適當性”發表意見。美國國務院歷史顧問辦公室一份由博格斯等簽署的備忘錄指出,“顯然,美國毫無根據主張有關島嶼構成菲律賓群島的一部分。”8月20日,美國國務卿赫爾復函美國陸軍部長鄧恩稱,“美國依據1898年條約從西班牙獲得的菲律賓群島的島嶼僅限于第三條規定的界限以內”,同時關于南沙群島有關島嶼,“需要指出的是,沒有任何跡象顯示西班牙曾對這些島嶼中的任何一個行使主權或提出主張”。這些文件證明,菲律賓領土從來不包括南海諸島,這一事實為包括美國在內的國際社會所承認。
  64. 第二,“卡拉延島群”是菲律賓發現的“無主地”,這一說法根本不成立。菲律賓以其國民于1956年所謂“發現”為基礎,將中國南沙群島部分島礁稱為“卡拉延島群”,企圖制造地理名稱和概念上的混亂,并割裂南沙群島。事實上,南沙群島的地理范圍是清楚和明確的,菲律賓所謂“卡拉延島群”就是中國南沙群島的一部分。南沙群島早已成為中國領土不可分割的組成部分,絕非“無主地”。
  65. 第三,南沙群島也不是所謂的“托管地”。菲律賓稱,二戰后南沙群島是“托管地”,主權未定。菲律賓的說法從法律和事實看,都沒有根據。二戰后的“托管地”,均在有關國際條約或聯合國托管理事會相關文件中明確開列,南沙群島從未出現在上述名單上,根本就不是“托管地”。
  66. 第四,“地理鄰近”和“國家安全”都不是領土取得的國際法依據。世界上許多國家的部分領土遠離其本土,有的甚至位于他國近岸。美國殖民統治菲律賓期間,就菲律賓群島附近一座島嶼的主權與荷蘭產生爭端,美國以“地理鄰近”為由提出的領土主張被判定為沒有國際法依據。以所謂“國家安全”為由侵占他國領土更是荒謬的。
  67. 第五,菲律賓稱,中國南沙群島部分島礁位于其專屬經濟區和大陸架范圍內,因此有關島礁屬于菲律賓或構成菲律賓大陸架組成部分。這一主張企圖以《公約》所賦予的海洋管轄權否定中國領土主權,與“陸地統治海洋”的國際法原則背道而馳,完全不符合《公約》的宗旨和目的。《公約》序言規定:“在妥為顧及所有國家主權的情形下,為海洋建立一種法律秩序……。”因此,沿海國必須在尊重他國領土主權的前提下主張海洋管轄權,不能將自己的海洋管轄權擴展到他國領土上,更不能以此否定他國主權,侵犯他國領土。
  68. 第六,菲律賓所謂的“有效控制”是建立在非法侵占基礎上的,是非法無效的。國際社會不承認武力侵占形成的所謂“有效控制”。菲律賓所謂“有效控制”是對中國南沙群島部分島礁赤裸裸的武力侵占,違背了《聯合國憲章》(以下簡稱《憲章》)和國際關系基本準則,為國際法所明確禁止。菲律賓建立在非法侵占基礎上的所謂“有效控制”,不能改變南沙群島是中國領土的基本事實。中國堅決反對任何人試圖把南沙群島部分島礁被侵占的狀態視為所謂“既成事實”或“現狀”,中國對此絕不承認。

引用 Damein 2016-7-14 00:57
  (三)國際海洋法制度的發展導致中菲出現海洋劃界爭議
  69. 隨著《公約》的制訂和生效,中國和菲律賓之間的南海有關爭議逐步激化。
  70. 基于中國人民和中國政府的長期歷史實踐及歷屆中國政府的一貫立場,根據國內法以及國際法,包括1958年《中華人民共和國政府關于領海的聲明》、1992年《中華人民共和國領海及毗連區法》、1996年《中華人民共和國全國人民代表大會常務委員會關于批準<聯合國海洋法公約>的決定》、1998年《中華人民共和國專屬經濟區和大陸架法》和1982年《聯合國海洋法公約》,中國南海諸島擁有內水、領海、毗連區、專屬經濟區和大陸架。此外,中國在南海擁有歷史性權利。
  71. 根據菲律賓1949年第387號共和國法案、1961年第3046號共和國法案、1968年第5446號共和國法案、1968年第370號總統公告、1978年第1599號總統令、2009年第9522號共和國法案等法律,菲律賓公布了內水、群島水域、領海,專屬經濟區和大陸架。
  72. 在南海,中國的陸地領土海岸和菲律賓的陸地領土海岸相向,相距不足400海里。兩國主張的海洋權益區域重疊,由此產生海洋劃界爭議。
  三、中菲已就解決南海有關爭議達成共識
  73. 中國堅決捍衛對南海諸島的主權,堅決反對菲律賓非法侵占中國島礁,堅決反對菲律賓依據單方面主張在中國管轄海域采取侵權行為。同時,從維護南海和平穩定出發,中國保持高度克制,堅持和平解決中菲南海有關爭議,并為此作出不懈努力。中國就管控海上分歧以及推動海上務實合作等與菲律賓進行多次磋商,雙方就通過談判解決南海有關爭議,妥善管控有關分歧達成重要共識。
  (一)通過談判解決南海有關爭議是中菲共識和承諾
  74. 中國一貫致力于在相互尊重主權和領土完整、互不侵犯、互不干涉內政、平等互利、和平共處五項原則基礎上與各國發展友好關系。
  75. 1975年6月,中菲關系實現正常化,兩國在有關公報中明確指出,兩國政府同意不訴諸武力,不以武力相威脅,和平解決所有爭端。
  76. 實際上,中國在解決南海問題上的“擱置爭議,共同開發”倡議,首先是對菲律賓提出的。1986年6月,中國領導人鄧小平在會見菲律賓副總統薩爾瓦多·勞雷爾時,指出南沙群島屬于中國,同時針對有關分歧表示,“這個問題可以先擱置一下,先放一放。過幾年后,我們坐下來,平心靜氣地商討一個可為各方接受的方式。我們不會讓這個問題妨礙與菲律賓和其他國家的友好關系”。1988年4月,鄧小平在會見菲律賓總統科拉松·阿基諾時重申“對南沙群島問題,中國最有發言權。南沙歷史上就是中國領土,很長時間,國際上對此無異議”;“從兩國友好關系出發,這個問題可先擱置一下,采取共同開發的辦法”。此后,中國在處理南海有關爭議及同南海周邊國家發展雙邊關系問題上,一直貫徹了鄧小平關于“主權屬我,擱置爭議,共同開發”的思想。
  77. 20世紀80年代以來,中國就通過談判管控和解決中菲南海有關爭議提出一系列主張和倡議,多次重申對南沙群島的主權、和平解決南海有關爭議的立場和“擱置爭議,共同開發”的倡議,明確表示反對外部勢力介入,反對南海問題國際化,強調不應使爭議影響兩國關系的發展。
  78. 1992年7月,在馬尼拉舉行的第25屆東盟外長會議發表《東盟關于南海問題的宣言》。中國表示,贊賞這一宣言所闡述的相關原則。中國一貫主張通過談判和平解決南沙群島部分島礁有關領土問題,反對訴諸武力,愿在條件成熟時同有關國家談判“擱置爭議,共同開發”。
  79. 1995年8月,中菲共同發表的《中華人民共和國和菲律賓共和國關于南海問題和其他領域合作的磋商聯合聲明》表示,“爭議應由直接有關國家解決”;“雙方承諾循序漸進地進行合作,最終談判解決雙方爭議”。此后,中國和菲律賓通過一系列雙邊文件確認通過雙邊談判協商解決南海問題的有關共識,例如:1999年3月《中菲建立信任措施工作小組會議聯合公報》、2000年5月《中華人民共和國政府和菲律賓共和國政府關于21世紀雙邊合作框架的聯合聲明》等。
  80. 2002年11月,中國同東盟10國共同簽署《宣言》。各方在《宣言》中鄭重承諾:“根據公認的國際法原則,包括1982年《聯合國海洋法公約》,由直接有關的主權國家通過友好磋商和談判,以和平方式解決它們的領土和管轄權爭議,而不訴諸武力或以武力相威脅。”
  81. 此后,中菲通過一系列雙邊文件確認各自在《宣言》中作出的鄭重承諾,例如:2004年9月《中華人民共和國政府和菲律賓共和國政府聯合新聞公報》、2011年9月《中華人民共和國和菲律賓共和國聯合聲明》等。
  82. 上述中菲兩國各項雙邊文件以及《宣言》的相關規定,體現了中菲就解決南海有關爭議達成的以下共識和承諾:一是有關爭議應在直接有關的主權國家之間解決;二是有關爭議應在平等和相互尊重基礎上,通過談判協商和平解決;三是直接有關的主權國家根據公認的國際法原則,包括1982年《聯合國海洋法公約》,“最終談判解決雙方爭議”。
  83. 中菲雙方多次重申通過談判解決有關爭議,并多次強調有關談判應由直接有關的主權國家開展,上述規定顯然已產生排除任何第三方爭端解決方式的效果。特別是1995年的聯合聲明規定“最終談判解決雙方爭議”,這里的“最終”一詞明顯是為了強調“談判”是雙方已選擇的唯一爭端解決方式,并排除包括第三方爭端解決程序在內的任何其他方式。上述共識和承諾構成兩國間排除通過第三方爭端解決方式解決中菲南海有關爭議的協議。這一協議必須遵守。
  (二)妥善管控南海有關爭議是中菲之間的共識
  84. 中國一貫主張,各方應通過制定規則、完善機制、務實合作、共同開發等方式管控爭議,為南海有關爭議的最終解決創造良好氛圍。
  85. 自20世紀90年代以來,中菲就管控爭議達成一系列共識:一是在有關爭議問題上保持克制,不采取可能導致事態擴大化的行動;二是堅持通過雙邊磋商機制管控爭議;三是堅持推動海上務實合作和共同開發;四是不使有關爭議影響雙邊關系的健康發展和南海地區的和平與穩定。
  86. 中菲還在《宣言》中達成如下共識:保持自我克制,不采取使爭議復雜化、擴大化和影響和平與穩定的行動;在和平解決領土和管轄權爭議前,本著合作與諒解的精神,努力尋求各種途徑建立互信;探討或開展在海洋環保、海洋科學研究、海上航行和交通安全、搜尋與救助、打擊跨國犯罪等方面的合作。
  87. 中菲曾就管控分歧、開展海上務實合作取得積極進展。
  88. 1999年3月,中國和菲律賓舉行關于在南海建立信任措施工作小組首次會議,雙方發表的《中菲建立信任措施工作小組會議聯合公報》指出,“雙方承諾根據廣泛接受的國際法原則包括聯合國海洋法公約,通過協商和平解決爭議,……雙方同意保持克制,不采取可能導致事態擴大化的行動。”
  89. 2001年4月,中菲發表的《第三次建立信任措施專家組會議聯合新聞聲明》指出,“雙方認識到兩國就探討南海合作方式所建立的雙邊磋商機制是富有成效的,雙方所達成的一系列諒解與共識對維護中菲關系的健康發展和南海地區的和平與穩定發揮了建設性作用。”
  90. 2004年9月,在中國和菲律賓領導人的共同見證下,中國海洋石油總公司和菲律賓國家石油公司簽署《南中國海部分海域聯合海洋地震工作協議》。經中菲雙方同意,2005年3月,中國、菲律賓、越南三國國家石油公司簽署《南中國海協議區三方聯合海洋地震工作協議》,商定三國的石油公司在三年協議期內,在約14.3萬平方千米海域的協議區內完成一定數量的二維和/或三維地震測線的采集和處理工作,對一定數量現有的二維地震測線進行再處理,研究評估協議區的石油資源狀況。2007年《中華人民共和國和菲律賓共和國聯合聲明》表示,“雙方認為,南海三方聯合海洋地震工作可以成為本地區合作的一個示范。雙方同意,可以探討將下一階段的三方合作提升到更高水平,以加強本地區建立互信的良好勢頭。”
  91. 令人遺憾的是,由于菲律賓方面缺乏合作意愿,中菲信任措施工作小組會議陷于停滯,中菲越三方聯合海洋地震考察工作也未能繼續。

引用 Damein 2016-7-14 00:57
  四、菲律賓一再采取導致爭議復雜化的行動
  92. 自20世紀80年代以來,菲律賓一再采取導致爭議復雜化的行動。
  (一)菲律賓企圖擴大對中國南沙群島部分島礁的侵占
  93. 自20世紀80年代起,菲律賓就在非法侵占的中國南沙群島有關島礁上建設軍事設施。90年代,菲律賓繼續在非法侵占的中國南沙群島有關島礁修建機場和海空軍基地,以非法侵占的中國南沙群島中業島為重點,持續在相關島礁建設和修整機場、兵營、碼頭等設施,以方便起降重型運輸機、戰斗機及容納更多更大的艦船。菲律賓還蓄意挑釁,頻繁派出軍艦、飛機侵入中國南沙群島五方礁、仙娥礁、信義礁、半月礁和仁愛礁,肆意破壞中國設置的測量標志。
  94. 更有甚者,1999年5月9日,菲律賓派出57號坦克登陸艦入侵中國仁愛礁,并以“技術故障擱淺”為借口,在該礁非法“坐灘”。中國當即對菲律賓提出嚴正交涉,要求立即拖走該艦。而菲律賓卻稱該艦“缺少零部件”無法拖走。
  95. 就此,中國持續對菲律賓進行交涉,再三要求菲方拖走該艦。例如,1999年11月,中國駐菲律賓大使約見菲律賓外長西亞松和總統辦公室主任來妮海索斯,再次就該艦非法“坐灘”仁愛礁事進行交涉。菲律賓雖然再三承諾將把該艦從仁愛礁撤走,但一直拖延不動。
  96. 2003年9月,得知菲律賓準備在仁愛礁非法“坐灘”的軍艦周圍修建設施后,中國當即提出嚴正交涉。菲律賓代理外長埃卜達林表示,菲律賓無意在仁愛礁上修建設施,菲律賓是《宣言》的簽署者,不會也不愿成為第一個違反者。
  97. 但是菲律賓拒不履行拖走該艦的承諾,反而變本加厲,采取進一步挑釁行為。菲律賓于2013年2月在非法“坐灘”的該艦四周拉起固定纜繩,艦上人員頻繁活動,準備建設固定設施。在中國多次交涉下,菲律賓國防部長加斯明聲稱,菲律賓只是在對該艦進行補給和修補,承諾不會在仁愛礁上修建設施。
  98. 2014年3月14日,菲律賓外交部發表聲明,公然宣稱菲律賓當年用57號坦克登陸艦在仁愛礁“坐灘”,就是為了“將該軍艦作為菲律賓政府的永久設施部署在仁愛礁”,企圖以此為借口,繼續拒不履行拖走該艦的承諾,進而達到侵占仁愛礁的目的。中國當即對此表示震驚,并重申絕不允許菲方以任何形式侵占仁愛礁。
  99. 2015年7月,菲律賓公開聲明,菲方正對在仁愛礁“坐灘”的軍艦進行內部整固。
  100. 菲律賓用軍艦“坐灘”仁愛礁,承諾拖走卻始終食言,直至采取加固措施,以自己的實際行動證明菲律賓就是第一個公然違反《宣言》的國家。
  101. 長期以來,菲律賓非法侵占中國南沙群島有關島礁,并在島礁上修筑各種軍事設施,企圖制造既成事實,長期霸占。菲律賓的所作所為,嚴重侵犯中國對南沙群島有關島礁的主權,嚴重違反《憲章》和國際法基本準則。
  (二)菲律賓一再擴大海上侵權
  102. 自20世紀70年代起,菲律賓依據其單方面主張,先后侵入中國南沙群島禮樂灘、忠孝灘等地進行非法油氣鉆探,包括就有關區塊進行對外招標。
  103. 進入21世紀以來,菲律賓擴大對外招標范圍,大面積侵入中國南沙群島有關海域。2003年,菲律賓將大片中國南沙群島相關海域劃為對外招標區塊。2014年5月,菲律賓進行了第5輪油氣招標,其中4個招標區塊侵入中國南沙群島相關海域。
  104. 菲律賓還不斷侵入中國南沙群島有關海域,襲擾中國漁民和漁船正常生產作業。據不完全統計,1989年至2015年,在上述海域共發生菲律賓非法侵犯中國漁民生命和財產安全事件97件,其中槍擊8件,搶劫34件,抓扣40件,追趕15件;共涉及中國漁船近200艘,漁民上千人。菲律賓還野蠻、粗暴對待中國漁民,施以非人道待遇。
  105. 菲律賓武裝人員經常無視中國漁民的生命安全,濫用武力。例如,2006年4月27日,菲律賓武裝漁船侵入中國南沙群島南方淺灘海域,襲擊中國“瓊瓊海03012”號漁船,菲方一艘武裝小艇及4名持槍人員向中國漁船靠近,并直接向漁船駕駛臺連續開槍射擊,造成陳奕超等4名漁民當場死亡、2人重傷、1人輕傷。隨后,13名持槍人員強行登上漁船進行搶劫,劫走船上衛星導航、通訊設備、生產工具、漁獲等。
  106. 菲律賓一再采取各種海上侵權行動,企圖擴大其在南海的非法主張,嚴重侵犯中國在南海的主權及相關權益。菲律賓的侵權行為嚴重違背了其在《宣言》中關于保持自我克制,不采取使爭議復雜化、擴大化行動的承諾。菲律賓槍擊、搶劫中國漁船和漁民,非法抓扣中國漁民并施以非人道待遇,嚴重侵犯中國漁民的人身和財產安全以及人格尊嚴,公然踐踏基本人權。
  (三)菲律賓企圖染指中國黃巖島
  107. 菲律賓還對中國黃巖島提出領土要求并企圖非法侵占。
  108. 黃巖島是中國固有領土,中國持續、和平、有效地對黃巖島行使著主權和管轄。
  109. 1997年之前,菲律賓從未對黃巖島屬于中國提出異議,從未對黃巖島提出領土要求。1990年2月5日,菲律賓駐德國大使比安弗尼多致函德國無線電愛好者迪特表示:“根據菲律賓國家地圖和資源信息局,斯卡伯勒礁或黃巖島不在菲律賓領土主權范圍以內。”
  110. 菲律賓國家地圖和資源信息局1994年10月28日簽發的《菲律賓共和國領土邊界證明書》表示,“菲律賓共和國的領土邊界和主權由1898年12月10日簽署的《巴黎條約》第3條確定”,并確認“菲律賓環境和自然資源部通過國家地圖和資源信息局發布的第25號官方地圖中顯示的領土界限完全正確并體現了真實狀態”。如前所述,《巴黎條約》和另外兩個條約確定了菲律賓的領土界限,中國黃巖島明顯位于這一界限以外。第25號官方地圖反映了這一事實。在1994年11月18日致美國無線電協會的信中,菲律賓無線電愛好者協會寫道,“一個非常重要的事實是,(菲律賓)有關政府機構申明,基于1898年12月10日簽署的《巴黎條約》第3條,斯卡伯勒礁就是位于菲律賓領土邊界之外。”
  111. 1997年4月,菲律賓一改其領土范圍不包括黃巖島的立場,對中國無線電運動協會組織的國際聯合業余無線電探險隊在黃巖島的探險活動進行跟蹤、監視和干擾,甚至不顧歷史事實,聲稱黃巖島在菲律賓主張的200海里專屬經濟區內,因此是菲律賓領土。對此,中國曾多次向菲律賓提出交涉,明確指出,黃巖島是中國固有領土,菲律賓的主張是無理、非法和無效的。
  112. 2009年2月17日,菲律賓國會通過9522號共和國法案,非法將中國黃巖島和南沙群島部分島礁劃為菲律賓領土。就此,中國即向菲律賓進行交涉并發表聲明,重申中國對黃巖島和南沙群島及其附近海域的主權,任何其他國家對黃巖島和南沙群島的島嶼提出領土主權要求,都是非法的、無效的。
  113. 2012年4月10日,菲律賓出動“德爾·皮拉爾”號軍艦,闖入中國黃巖島附近海域,對在該海域作業的中國漁民、漁船實施非法抓扣并施以嚴重非人道待遇,蓄意挑起黃巖島事件。中國即在北京和馬尼拉多次對菲律賓提出嚴正交涉,對菲律賓侵犯中國領土主權和傷害中國漁民的行徑表示強烈抗議,要求菲律賓立即撤出一切船只和人員。與此同時,中國政府迅速派出海監和漁政執法船只前往黃巖島,維護主權并對中國漁民進行救助。2012年6月,經中國多次嚴正交涉,菲律賓從黃巖島撤出相關船只和人員。
  114. 菲律賓對中國黃巖島提出的非法領土要求沒有任何國際法依據。所謂黃巖島在菲律賓200海里專屬經濟區內因而是菲律賓領土的主張,顯然是對國際法蓄意和荒唐的歪曲。菲律賓派軍艦武裝闖入黃巖島附近海域,嚴重侵犯中國領土主權,嚴重違背《憲章》和國際法基本原則。菲律賓鼓動并慫恿菲方船只和人員大規模侵入中國黃巖島海域,嚴重侵犯中國在黃巖島海域的主權和主權權利。菲律賓非法抓扣在黃巖島海域正常作業的中國漁民并施以嚴重的非人道待遇,嚴重侵犯中國漁民的人格尊嚴,踐踏人權。

引用 Damein 2016-7-14 00:57
  (四)菲律賓單方面提起仲裁是惡意行為
  115. 2013年1月22日,菲律賓共和國時任政府違背中菲之間達成并多次確認的通過談判解決南海有關爭議的共識,違反其在《宣言》中作出的莊嚴承諾,在明知領土爭議不屬于《公約》調整范圍,海洋劃界爭議已被中國2006年有關聲明排除的情況下,蓄意將有關爭議包裝成單純的《公約》解釋或適用問題,濫用《公約》爭端解決機制,單方面提起南海仲裁案。菲律賓此舉不是為了解決與中國的爭議,而是企圖借此否定中國在南海的領土主權和海洋權益。菲律賓的行為是惡意的。
  116. 第一,菲律賓單方面提起仲裁,違反中菲通過雙邊談判解決爭議的協議。中菲在有關雙邊文件中已就通過談判解決南海有關爭議達成協議并多次予以確認。中國和菲律賓在《宣言》中就通過談判解決南海有關爭議作出鄭重承諾,并一再在雙邊文件中予以確認。上述中菲兩國各項雙邊文件以及《宣言》的相關規定相輔相成,構成中菲兩國之間的協議。兩國據此選擇了以談判方式解決有關爭端,并排除了包括仲裁在內的第三方方式。“約定必須遵守”。這項國際法基礎規范必須得到執行。菲律賓違背自己的莊嚴承諾,是嚴重的背信棄義行為,不為菲律賓創設任何權利,也不為中國創設任何義務。
  117. 第二,菲律賓單方面提起仲裁,侵犯中國作為《公約》締約國自主選擇爭端解決方式的權利。《公約》第十五部分第280條規定,“本公約的任何規定均不損害任何締約國于任何時候協議用自行選擇的任何和平方法解決它們之間有關本公約的解釋或適用的爭端的權利”;第281條規定,“作為有關本公約的解釋或適用的爭端各方的締約各國,如已協議用自行選擇的和平方法來謀求解決爭端,則只有在訴諸這種方法仍未得到解決以及爭端各方間的協議并不排除任何其他程序的情形下,才適用本部分所規定的程序”。由于中菲之間已就通過談判解決爭議作出明確選擇,《公約》規定的第三方強制爭端解決程序不適用。
  118. 第三,菲律賓單方面提起仲裁,濫用《公約》爭端解決程序。菲律賓提起仲裁事項的實質是南沙群島部分島礁的領土主權問題,有關事項也構成中菲海洋劃界不可分割的組成部分。陸地領土問題不屬于《公約》的調整范圍。2006年,中國根據《公約》第298條作出排除性聲明,將涉及海洋劃界、歷史性海灣或所有權、軍事和執法行動等方面的爭端排除在《公約》爭端解決程序之外。包括中國在內的約30個國家作出的排除性聲明,構成《公約》爭端解決機制的組成部分。菲律賓通過包裝訴求,惡意規避中方有關排除性聲明和陸地領土爭議不屬《公約》調整事項的限制,單方面提起仲裁,構成對《公約》爭端解決程序的濫用。
  119. 第四,菲律賓為推動仲裁捏造事實,曲解法律,編造了一系列謊言:
  ——菲律賓明知其仲裁訴求涉及中國在南海的領土主權,領土問題不屬于《公約》調整的事項,卻故意將其曲解和包裝成《公約》解釋或適用問題;
  ——菲律賓明知其仲裁訴求涉及海洋劃界問題,且中國已根據《公約》第298條作出聲明,將包括海洋劃界在內的爭端排除出《公約》規定的第三方爭端解決程序,卻故意將海洋劃界過程中需要考慮的各項因素抽離出來,孤立看待,企圖規避中國有關排除性聲明;
  ——菲律賓無視中菲從未就其仲裁事項進行任何談判的事實,故意將其與中國就一般性海洋事務與合作進行的一些磋商曲解為就仲裁事項進行的談判,并以此為借口聲稱已窮盡雙邊談判手段;
  ——菲律賓聲稱其不尋求判定任何領土歸屬,或劃定任何海洋邊界,然而在仲裁進程中,特別是庭審中,卻屢屢否定中國在南海的領土主權和海洋權益;
  ——菲律賓無視中國在南海問題上的一貫立場和實踐,子虛烏有地聲稱中國對整個南海主張排他性的海洋權益;
  ——菲律賓刻意夸大西方殖民者歷史上在南海的作用,否定中國長期開發、經營和管轄南海相關水域的史實及相應的法律效力;
  ——菲律賓牽強附會,拼湊關聯性和證明力不強的證據,強撐其訴訟請求;
  ——菲律賓隨意解釋國際法規則,大量援引極具爭議的司法案例和不具權威性的個人意見支撐其訴求。
  120. 簡言之,菲律賓單方面提起仲裁違反包括《公約》爭端解決機制在內的國際法。應菲律賓單方面請求建立的南海仲裁案仲裁庭自始無管轄權,所作出的裁決是無效的,沒有拘束力。中國在南海的領土主權和海洋權益在任何情況下不受仲裁裁決的影響。中國不接受、不承認該裁決,反對且不接受任何以仲裁裁決為基礎的主張和行動。
  五、中國處理南海問題的政策
  121. 中國是維護南海和平穩定的重要力量。中國一貫遵守《憲章》的宗旨和原則,堅定維護和促進國際法治,尊重和踐行國際法,在堅定維護中國在南海的領土主權和海洋權益的同時,堅持通過談判協商解決爭議,堅持通過規則機制管控分歧,堅持通過互利合作實現共贏,致力于把南海建設成和平之海、友誼之海和合作之海。
  122. 中國堅持與地區國家共同維護南海和平穩定,堅定維護各國依據國際法在南海享有的航行和飛越自由,積極倡導域外國家尊重地區國家的努力,在維護南海和平穩定問題上發揮建設性作用。
  (一)關于南沙群島領土問題
  123. 中國堅定地維護對南海諸島及其附近海域的主權。部分國家對南沙群島部分島礁提出非法領土主張并實施武力侵占,嚴重違反《憲章》和國際關系基本準則,是非法的、無效的。對此,中國堅決反對,并要求有關國家停止對中國領土的侵犯。
  124. 中國始終致力于與包括菲律賓在內的直接有關的當事國在尊重歷史事實的基礎上,根據國際法,通過談判解決有關爭議。
  125. 眾所周知,陸地領土問題不屬于《公約》調整的事項。因此,南沙群島領土問題不適用《公約》。
  (二)關于南海海洋劃界問題
  126. 中國主張,同直接有關的當事國依據包括《公約》在內的國際法,通過談判公平解決南海海洋劃界問題。在劃界問題最終解決前,各方應保持自我克制,不采取使爭議復雜化、擴大化和影響和平與穩定的行動。
  127. 1996年,中國在批準《公約》時聲明:“中華人民共和國將與海岸相向或相鄰的國家,通過協商,在國際法基礎上,按照公平原則劃定各自海洋管轄權界限。”1998年,《中華人民共和國專屬經濟區和大陸架法》進一步明確中國同海洋鄰國之間解決海洋劃界問題的原則立場,即“中華人民共和國與海岸相鄰或者相向國家關于專屬經濟區和大陸架的主張重疊的,在國際法的基礎上按照公平原則以協議劃定界限”,“本法的規定不影響中華人民共和國享有的歷史性權利”。
  128. 中國不接受任何企圖通過單方面行動把海洋管轄權強加于中國的做法,也不認可任何有損于中國在南海海洋權益的行動。
  (三)關于爭端解決方式
  129. 基于對國際實踐的深刻認識和中國自身豐富的國家實踐,中國堅信,要解決任何國家間爭議,無論選擇哪種機制和方式,都不能違背主權國家的意志,應以國家同意為基礎。
  130. 在領土和海洋劃界問題上,中國不接受任何強加于中國的爭端解決方案,不接受任何訴諸第三方的爭端解決方式。2006年8月25日,中國根據《公約》第298條的規定向聯合國秘書長提交聲明,稱“關于《公約》第二百九十八條第1款(a)、(b)、(c)項所述的任何爭端,中華人民共和國政府不接受《公約》第十五部分第二節規定的任何程序”,明確將涉及海洋劃界、歷史性海灣或所有權、軍事和執法活動,以及聯合國安全理事會執行《憲章》所賦予的職務等爭端排除在《公約》強制爭端解決程序之外。
  131. 中華人民共和國成立以來,已與14個陸地鄰國中的12個國家,本著平等協商、相互諒解的精神,通過雙邊談判,簽訂了邊界條約,劃定和勘定的邊界約占中國陸地邊界長度的90%。中國與越南已通過談判劃定了兩國在北部灣的領海、專屬經濟區和大陸架界限。中國對通過談判解決爭議的誠意和不懈努力是有目共睹的。不言而喻,談判是國家意志的直接體現。談判當事方直接參與形成最終結果。實踐表明,談判取得的成果更容易獲得當事國人民的理解和支持,能夠得到有效實施,并具有持久生命力。只有當事方通過平等談判達成協議,有關爭議才能獲得根本長久解決,有關協議才能得到全面有效貫徹實施。
  (四)關于在南海管控分歧和開展海上務實合作
  132. 根據國際法和國際實踐,在海洋爭議最終解決前,當事國應保持克制,盡一切努力作出實際性的臨時安排,包括建立和完善爭議管控規則和機制,開展各領域合作,推動“擱置爭議,共同開發”,維護南海地區的和平穩定,為最終解決爭議創造條件。有關合作和共同開發不妨害最后界限的劃定。
  133. 中國積極推動與有關國家建立雙邊海上磋商機制,探討在漁業、油氣等領域的共同開發,倡議有關各國積極探討根據《公約》有關規定,建立南海沿岸國合作機制。
  134. 中國始終致力于與東盟國家一道全面有效落實《宣言》,積極推動海上務實合作,已取得了包括建立“中國-東盟國家海上聯合搜救熱線平臺”、“中國-東盟國家應對海上緊急事態外交高官熱線平臺”以及“中國-東盟國家海上聯合搜救沙盤推演”等“早期收獲”成果。
  135. 中國始終堅持倡導各方在全面有效落實《宣言》框架下,積極推進“南海行為準則”磋商,爭取在協商一致基礎上早日達成“準則”。為在“準則”最終達成前妥善管控海上風險,中國提議探討制定“海上風險管控預防性措施”,并獲得東盟國家一致認同。
  (五)關于南海航行自由和安全
  136. 中國一貫致力于維護各國根據國際法所享有的航行和飛越自由,維護海上通道的安全。
  137. 南海擁有眾多重要的航行通道,有關航道也是中國對外貿易和能源進口的主要通道之一,保障南海航行和飛越自由,維護南海海上通道的安全對中國十分重要。長期以來,中國致力于和東盟國家共同保障南海航道的暢通和安全,并作出重大貢獻。各國在南海依據國際法享有的航行和飛越自由不存在任何問題。
  138. 中國積極提供國際公共產品,通過各項能力建設,努力向國際社會提供包括導航助航、搜尋救助、海況和氣象預報等方面的服務,以保障和促進南海海上航行通道的安全。
  139. 中國主張,有關各方在南海行使航行和飛越自由時,應充分尊重沿岸國的主權和安全利益,并遵守沿岸國按照《公約》規定和其他國際法規則制定的法律和規章。
  (六)關于共同維護南海和平穩定
  140. 中國主張,南海和平穩定應由中國和東盟國家共同維護。
  141. 中國堅持走和平發展道路,堅持防御性的國防政策,堅持互信、互利、平等、協作的新安全觀,堅持與鄰為善、以鄰為伴的周邊外交方針和睦鄰、安鄰、富鄰的周邊外交政策,踐行親、誠、惠、容周邊外交理念。中國是維護南海和平穩定、推動南海合作和發展的堅定力量。中國致力于深化周邊睦鄰友好,積極推動與周邊國家以及東盟等地區組織的務實合作,實現互利共贏。
  142. 南海既是溝通中國與周邊國家的橋梁,也是中國與周邊國家和平、友好、合作和發展的紐帶。南海和平穩定與地區國家的安全、發展和繁榮息息相關,與地區各國人民的福祉息息相關。實現南海地區的和平穩定和繁榮發展是中國和東盟國家的共同愿望和共同責任,符合各國的共同利益。
  143. 中國愿繼續為此作出不懈努力。

引用 Damein 2016-7-14 00:59
Full Text: China Adheres to the Position of Settling Through Negotiation the Relevant Disputes Between China and the Philippines in the South China Sea

source:http://www.scio.gov.cn/32618/Document/1483578/1483578.htm
The State Council Information Office of the People's Republic of China on July 13 published a white paper titled "China Adheres to the Position of Settling Through Negotiation the Relevant Disputes Between China and the Philippines in the South China Sea".
Following is the full text of the white paper:
China Adheres to the Position of Settling Through Negotiation
the Relevant Disputes Between China and the Philippines
in the South China Sea
Contents
Introduction
I. Nanhai Zhudao are China's Inherent Territory
i. China's sovereignty over Nanhai Zhudao is established in the course of history
ii. China has always been resolute in upholding its territorial sovereignty and maritime rights and interests in the South China Sea
iii. China's sovereignty over Nanhai Zhudao is widely acknowledged in the international community
II. Origin of the Relevant Disputes Between China and the Philippines in the South China Sea
i. The Philippines' invasion and illegal occupation caused disputes with China over some islands and reefs of Nansha Qundao
ii. The Philippines' illegal claim has no historical or legal basis
iii. The development of the international law of the sea gave rise to the dispute between China and the Philippines over maritime delimitation
III. China and the Philippines Have Reached Consensus on Settling Their Relevant Disputes in the South China Sea
i. It is the consensus and commitment of China and the Philippines to settle through negotiation their relevant disputes in the South China Sea
ii. It is the consensus of China and the Philippines to properly manage relevant disputes in the South China Sea
IV. The Philippines Has Repeatedly Taken Moves that Complicate the Relevant Disputes
i. The Philippines attempts to entrench its illegal occupation of some islands and reefs of China's Nansha Qundao
ii. The Philippines has increasingly intensified its infringement of China's maritime rights and interests
iii. The Philippines also has territorial pretensions on China's Huangyan Dao
iv. The Philippines' unilateral initiation of arbitration is an act of bad faith
V. China's Policy on the South China Sea Issue
i. On the territorial issues concerning Nansha Qundao
ii. On maritime delimitation in the South China Sea
iii. On the ways and means of dispute settlement
iv. On managing differences and engaging in practical maritime cooperation in the South China Sea
v. On freedom and safety of navigation in the South China Sea
vi. On jointly upholding peace and stability in the South China Sea
Introduction
1. Situated to the south of China's mainland, and connected by narrow straits and waterways with the Pacific Ocean to the east and the Indian Ocean to the west, the South China Sea is a semi-closed sea extending from northeast to southwest. To its north are the mainland and Taiwan Dao of China, to its south Kalimantan Island and Sumatra Island, to its east the Philippine Islands, and to its west the Indo-China Peninsula and the Malay Peninsula.
2. China's Nanhai Zhudao (the South China Sea Islands) consist of Dongsha Qundao (the Dongsha Islands), Xisha Qundao (the Xisha Islands), Zhongsha Qundao (the Zhongsha Islands) and Nansha Qundao (the Nansha Islands). These Islands include, among others, islands, reefs, shoals and cays of various numbers and sizes. Nansha Qundao is the largest in terms of both the number of islands and reefs and the geographical area.
3. The activities of the Chinese people in the South China Sea date back to over 2,000 years ago. China is the first to have discovered, named, and explored and exploited Nanhai Zhudao and relevant waters, and the first to have continuously, peacefully and effectively exercised sovereignty and jurisdiction over them. China's sovereignty over Nanhai Zhudao and relevant rights and interests in the South China Sea have been established in the long course of history, and are solidly grounded in history and law.
4. As neighbors facing each other across the sea, China and the Philippines have closely engaged in exchanges, and the two peoples have enjoyed friendship over generations. There had been no territorial or maritime delimitation disputes between the two states until the 1970s when the Philippines started to invade and illegally occupy some islands and reefs of China's Nansha Qundao, creating a territorial issue with China over these islands and reefs. In addition, with the development of the international law of the sea, a maritime delimitation dispute also arose between the two states regarding certain maritime areas of the South China Sea.
5. China and the Philippines have not yet had any negotiation designed to settle their relevant disputes in the South China Sea. However, the two countries did hold multiple rounds of consultations on the proper management of disputes at sea and reached consensus on resolving through negotiation and consultation the relevant disputes, which has been repeatedly reaffirmed in a number of bilateral documents. The two countries have also made solemn commitment to settling relevant disputes through negotiation and consultation in the 2002 Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea (DOC) that China and the ASEAN Member States jointly signed.
6. In January 2013, the then government of the Republic of the Philippines turned its back on the above-mentioned consensus and commitment, and unilaterally initiated the South China Sea arbitration. The Philippines deliberately mischaracterized and packaged the territorial issue which is not subject to the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) and the maritime delimitation dispute which has been excluded from the UNCLOS dispute settlement procedures by China's 2006 optional exceptions declaration pursuant to Article 298 of UNCLOS. This act is a wanton abuse of the UNCLOS dispute settlement procedures. In doing so, the Philippines attempts to deny China's territorial sovereignty and maritime rights and interests in the South China Sea.
7. This paper aims to clarify the facts and tell the truth behind the relevant disputes between China and the Philippines in the South China Sea, and to reaffirm China's consistent position and policy on the South China Sea issue, in order to get to the root of the issue and set the record straight.

引用 Damein 2016-7-14 01:00
I. Nanhai Zhudao are China's Inherent Territory
i. China's sovereignty over Nanhai Zhudao is established in the course of history
8. The Chinese people have since ancient times lived and engaged in production activities on Nanhai Zhudao and in relevant waters. China is the first to have discovered, named, and explored and exploited Nanhai Zhudao and relevant waters, and the first to have continuously, peacefully and effectively exercised sovereignty and jurisdiction over them, thus establishing sovereignty over Nanhai Zhudao and the relevant rights and interests in the South China Sea.
9. As early as the 2nd century BCE in the Western Han Dynasty, the Chinese people sailed in the South China Sea and discovered Nanhai Zhudao in the long course of activities.
10. A lot of Chinese historical literatures chronicle the activities of the Chinese people in the South China Sea. These books include, among others, Yi Wu Zhi (An Account of Strange Things) published in the Eastern Han Dynasty (25-220), Fu Nan Zhuan (An Account of Fu Nan) during the period of the Three Kingdoms (220-280), Meng Liang Lu (Record of a Daydreamer) and Ling Wai Dai Da (Notes for the Land beyond the Passes) in the Song Dynasty (960-1279), Dao Yi Zhi Lüe (A Brief Account of the Islands) in the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368), Dong Xi Yang Kao (Studies on the Oceans East and West) and Shun Feng Xiang Song (Fair Winds for Escort) in the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) and Zhi Nan Zheng Fa (Compass Directions) and Hai Guo Wen Jian Lu (Records of Things Seen and Heard about the Coastal Regions) in the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911). These books also record the geographical locations and geomorphologic characteristics of Nanhai Zhudao as well as hydrographical and meteorological conditions of the South China Sea. These books record vividly descriptive names the Chinese people gave to Nanhai Zhudao, such as "Zhanghaiqitou" (twisted atolls on the rising sea), "Shanhuzhou" (coral cays), "Jiuruluozhou" (nine isles of cowry), "Shitang" (rocky reefs), "Qianlishitang" (thousand-li rocky reefs), "Wanlishitang" (ten thousand-li rocky reefs), "Changsha" (long sand cays), "Qianlichangsha" (thousand-li sand cays), and "Wanlichangsha" (ten thousand-li sand cays).
11. The Chinese fishermen have developed a relatively fixed naming system for the various components of Nanhai Zhudao in the long process of exploration and exploitation of the South China Sea. Under this system, islands and shoals have become known as "Zhi"; reefs "Chan", "Xian", or "Sha"; atolls "Kuang", "Quan" or "Tang"; and banks "Shapai". Geng Lu Bu (Manual of Sea Routes), a kind of navigation guidebook for Chinese fishermen's journeys between the coastal regions of China's mainland and Nanhai Zhudao, came into being and circulation in the Ming and Qing Dynasties, and has been handed down in various editions and versions of handwritten copies and is still in use even today. It shows that the Chinese people lived and carried out production activities on, and how they named Nanhai Zhudao. Geng Lu Bu records names for at least 70 islands, reefs, shoals and cays of Nansha Qundao. Some were named after compass directions in Chinese renditions, such as Chouwei (Zhubi Jiao) and Dongtou Yixin (Pengbo Ansha); some were named after local aquatic products in the surrounding waters such as Chigua Xian (Chigua Jiao, "chigua" means "red sea cucumber") and Mogua Xian (Nanping Jiao, "mogua" means "black sea cucumber"); some were named after their shapes, such as Niaochuan (Xian'e Jiao, "niaochuan" means "bird string") and Shuangdan (Xinyi Jiao, "shuangdan" means "shoulder poles"); some were named after physical objects, such as Guogai Zhi (Anbo Shazhou, "guogai" means "pot cover") and Chenggou Zhi (Jinghong Dao, "chenggou" means "steelyard hook"); still some were named after waterways such as Liumen Sha (Liumen Jiao, "liumen" means "six doorways").
12. Some of the names given by the Chinese people to Nanhai Zhudao were adopted by Western navigators and marked in some authoritative navigation guidebooks and charts published in the 19th and 20th centuries. For instance, Namyit (Hongxiu Dao), Sin Cowe (Jinghong Dao) and Subi (Zhubi Jiao) originate from "Nanyi", "Chenggou" and "Chouwei" as pronounced in Hainan dialects.
13. Numerous historical documents and objects prove that the Chinese people have explored and exploited in a sustained way Nanhai Zhudao and relevant waters. Starting from the Ming and Qing Dynasties, Chinese fishermen sailed southward on the northeasterly monsoon to Nansha Qundao and relevant waters for fishery production activities and returned on the southwesterly monsoon to the mainland the following year. Some of them lived on the islands for years, going for fishing, digging wells for fresh water, cultivating land and farming, building huts and temples, and raising livestock. Chinese and foreign historical literature as well as archaeological finds show that there were crops, wells, huts, temples, tombs and tablet inscriptions left by Chinese fishermen on some islands and reefs of Nansha Qundao.
14. Many foreign documents also recorded the fact that during a long period of time only Chinese lived and worked on Nansha Qundao.
15. The China Sea Directory published in 1868 by order of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty of the United Kingdom, when referring to Zhenghe Qunjiao of Nansha Qundao, observed that "Hainan fishermen, who subsist by collecting trepang and tortoise-shell, were found upon most of these islands, some of whom remain for years amongst the reefs", and that "[t]he fishermen upon Itu-Aba island [Taiping Dao] were more comfortably established than the others, and the water found in the well on that island was better than elsewhere." The China Sea Directory published in 1906 and The China Sea Pilot in its 1912, 1923 and 1937 editions made in many parts explicit records of the Chinese fishermen living and working on Nansha Qundao.
16. The French magazine Le Monde Colonial Illustré published in September 1933 contains the following records: Only Chinese people (Hainan natives) lived on the nine islands of Nansha Qundao and there were no people from other countries. Seven were on Nanzi Dao (South West Cay), two of them were children. Five lived on Zhongye Dao (Thitu Island); four lived on Nanwei Dao (Spratly Island), one person more over that of 1930. There were worship stands, thatched cottages and wells left by the Chinese on Nanyao Dao (Loaita Island). No one was sighted on Taiping Dao (Itu Aba Island), but a tablet scripted with Chinese characters was found, which said that, in that magazine's rendition, "Moi, Ti Mung, patron de jonque, suis venu ici à la pleine lune de mars pour vous porter des aliments. Je n'ai trouvé personne, je laisse le riz à l'abri des pierres et je pars." Traces were also found of fishermen living on the other islands. This magazine also records that there are abundant vegetation, wells providing drinking water, coconut palms, banana trees, papaya trees, pineapples, green vegetables and potatoes as well as poultry on Taiping Dao, Zhongye Dao, Nanwei Dao and other islands, and that these islands are habitable.
17. Japanese literature Boufuu No Shima (Stormy Island) published in 1940 as well as The Asiatic Pilot, Vol. IV, published by the United States Hydrographic Office in 1925 also have accounts about Chinese fishermen who lived and worked on Nansha Qundao.
18. China is the first to have continuously exercised authority over Nanhai Zhudao and relevant maritime activities. In history, China has exercised jurisdiction in a continuous, peaceful and effective manner over Nanhai Zhudao and in relevant waters through measures such as establishment of administrative setups, naval patrols, resources development, astronomical observation and geographical survey.
19. For instance, in the Song Dynasty, China established a post of Jing Lüe An Fu Shi (Imperial Envoy for Management and Pacification) in the regions now known as Guangdong and Guangxi to govern the southern territory. It is mentioned in Zeng Gongliang's Wujing Zongyao (Outline Record of Military Affairs) that, in order to strengthen defense in the South China Sea, China established naval units to conduct patrols therein. In the Qing Dynasty, Ming Yi's Qiongzhou Fuzhi (Chronicle of Qiongzhou Prefecture), Zhong Yuandi's Yazhou Zhi (Chronicle of Yazhou Prefecture) and others all listed "Shitang" and "Changsha" under the items of "maritime defense".
20. Many of China's local official records, such as Guangdong Tong Zhi (General Chronicle of Guangdong), Qiongzhou Fu Zhi (Chronicle of Qiongzhou Prefecture) and Wanzhou Zhi (Chronicle of Wanzhou), contain in the section on "territory" or "geography, mountains and waters" a statement that "Wanzhou covers 'Qianlichangsha' and 'Wanlishitang'" or something similar.
21. The successive Chinese governments have marked Nanhai Zhudao as Chinese territory on official maps, such as the 1755 Tian Xia Zong Yu Tu (General Map of Geography of the All-under-heaven) of the Huang Qing Ge Zhi Sheng Fen Tu (Map of the Provinces Directly under the Imperial Qing Authority), the 1767 Da Qing Wan Nian Yi Tong Tian Xia Tu (Map of the Eternally Unified All-under-heaven of the Great Qing Empire), the 1810 Da Qing Wan Nian Yi Tong Di Li Quan Tu (Map of the Eternally Unified Great Qing Empire) and the 1817 Da Qing Yi Tong Tian Xia Quan Tu (Map of the Unified All-under-heaven of the Great Qing Empire).
22. Historical facts show that the Chinese people have all along taken Nanhai Zhudao and relevant waters as a ground for living and production, where they have engaged in exploration and exploitation activities in various forms. The successive Chinese governments have exercised jurisdiction over Nanhai Zhudao in a continuous, peaceful and effective manner. In the course of history, China has established sovereignty over Nanhai Zhudao and relevant rights and interests in the South China Sea. The Chinese people have long been the master of Nanhai Zhudao.
ii. China has always been resolute in upholding its territorial sovereignty and maritime rights and interests in the South China Sea
23. China's sovereignty over Nanhai Zhudao had never been challenged before the 20th century. When France and Japan invaded and illegally occupied by force some islands and reefs of China's Nansha Qundao in the 1930s and 1940s, the Chinese people rose to fight back strenuously and the Chinese government took a series of measures to defend China's sovereignty over Nansha Qundao.
24. In 1933, France invaded some islands and reefs of Nansha Qundao and declared "occupation" of them in an announcement published in Journal Officiel, creating the "Incident of the Nine Islets". The French aggression triggered strong reactions and large scale protests from all walks of life across China. The Chinese fishermen living on Nansha Qundao also took on-site resistance against the French aggression. Chinese fishermen Fu Hongguang, Ke Jiayu, Zheng Landing and others cut down the posts flying French flags on Taiping Dao, Beizi Dao, Nanwei Dao, Zhongye Dao and others.
25. Shortly after this Incident happened, the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs made clear through its spokesperson, referring to the relevant islands of Nansha Qundao, that "no other people but Chinese fishermen live on the islands and they are recognized internationally as Chinese territory". The Chinese government made strong representations to the French government against its aggression. And in response to the French attempt to trick Chinese fishermen into hanging French flags, the government of Guangdong Province instructed that administrators of all counties should issue public notice forbidding all Chinese fishing vessels operating in Nansha Qundao and relevant waters from hanging foreign flags, and Chinese national flags were distributed to them to be hung on Chinese fishing vessels.
26. China's Committee for the Examination for the Land and Sea Maps, which was composed of representatives of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of the Interior, Ministry of the Navy and other institutions, reviewed and approved the names of individual islands, reefs, banks and shoals of Nanhai Zhudao, compiled and published Zhong Guo Nan Hai Ge Dao Yu Tu (Map of the South China Sea Islands of China) in 1935.
27. Japan invaded and illegally occupied Nanhai Zhudao during its war of aggression against China. The Chinese people fought heroically against the Japanese aggression. With the advance of the World's Anti-Fascist War and the Chinese People's War of Resistance against Japanese Aggression, China, the United States and the United Kingdom solemnly demanded in the Cairo Declaration in December 1943 that all the territories Japan had stolen from the Chinese shall be restored to China. In July 1945, China, the United States and the United Kingdom issued the Potsdam Proclamation. That Proclamation explicitly declares in Article 8: "The terms of the Cairo Declaration shall be carried out."
28. In August 1945, Japan announced its acceptance of the Potsdam Proclamation and its unconditional surrender. In November and December 1946, the Chinese government dispatched Colonel Lin Zun and other senior military and civil officials to Xisha Qundao and Nansha Qundao to resume exercise of authority over these Islands, with commemorative ceremonies held, sovereignty markers re-erected, and troops garrisoned. These officials arrived at these islands on four warships, namely Yongxing, Zhongjian, Taiping and Zhongye. Subsequently, the Chinese government renamed four islands of Xisha Qundao and Nansha Qundao after the names of those four warships.
29. In March 1947, the Chinese government established on Taiping Dao Nansha Qundao Office of Administration and placed it under the jurisdiction of Guangdong Province. China also set up a meteorological station and a radio station on Taiping Dao, which started broadcasting meteorological information in June of that year.
30. On the basis of a new round of geographical survey of Nanhai Zhudao, the Chinese government commissioned in 1947 the compilation of Nan Hai Zhu Dao Di Li Zhi Lüe (A Brief Account of the Geography of the South China Sea Islands), reviewed and approved Nan Hai Zhu Dao Xin Jiu Ming Cheng Dui Zhao Biao (Comparison Table on the Old and New Names of the South China Sea Islands), and drew Nan Hai Zhu Dao Wei Zhi Tu (Location Map of the South China Sea Islands) on which the dotted line is marked. In February 1948, the Chinese government officially published Zhong Hua Min Guo Xing Zheng Qu Yu Tu (Map of the Administrative Districts of the Republic of China) including Nan Hai Zhu Dao Wei Zhi Tu (Location Map of the South China Sea Islands).
31. In June 1949, the Chinese government promulgated Hai Nan Te Qu Xing Zheng Zhang Guan Gong Shu Zu Zhi Tiao Li (Regulations on the Organization of the Office of the Chief Executive of the Hainan Special District), which placed Hainan Dao, Dongsha Qundao, Xisha Qundao, Zhongsha Qundao, Nansha Qundao and some other islands under the jurisdiction of the Hainan Special District.
32. Since its founding on 1 October 1949, the People's Republic of China has repeatedly reiterated and further upheld its sovereignty over Nanhai Zhudao and relevant rights and interests in the South China Sea by measures such as adopting legislations, establishing administration and making diplomatic representations. China has never ceased carrying out activities such as patrolling and law enforcement, resources development and scientific survey on Nanhai Zhudao and in the South China Sea.
33. In August 1951, Foreign Minister Zhou Enlai, in his Statement on the United States-British Draft Peace Treaty with Japan and the San Francisco Conference, pointed out that "as a matter of fact, just like all the Nan Sha Islands, Chung Sha Islands and Tung Sha Islands, Si Sha Islands (the Paracel Islands) and Nan Wei Island (Spratly Island) have always been China's territory, occupied by Japan for some time during the war of aggression waged by Japanese imperialism, they were all taken over by the then Chinese Government, following Japan's surrender", "Whether or not the United States-British Draft Treaty contains provisions on this subject and no matter how these provisions are worded, the inviolable sovereignty of the People's Republic of China over Nan Wei Island (Spratly Island) and Si Sha Islands (the Paracel Islands) will not be in any way affected."
34. In September 1958, China promulgated the Declaration of the Government of the People's Republic of China on China's Territorial Sea, explicitly providing that the breadth of China's territorial sea shall be twelve nautical miles, that the straight baselines method shall be employed to determine the baselines of territorial sea and that such provisions shall apply to all territories of the People's Republic of China, including "Dongsha Qundao, Xisha Qundao, Zhongsha Qundao, Nansha Qundao and all the other islands belonging to China".
35. In March 1959, the Chinese government set up, on Yongxing Dao of Xisha Qundao, the Office of Xisha Qundao, Nansha Qundao and Zhongsha Qundao. In March 1969, the Office was renamed the Revolutionary Committee of Xisha Qundao, Zhongsha Qundao and Nansha Qundao of Guangdong Province. In October 1981, the name of the Office of Xisha Qundao, Nansha Qundao and Zhongsha Qundao was restored.
36. In April 1983, China Committee on Geographical Names was authorized to publish 287 standard geographical names for part of Nanhai Zhudao.
37. In May 1984, the Sixth National People's Congress decided at its Second Session to establish the Hainan Administrative District with jurisdiction over Xisha Qundao, Nansha Qundao and Zhongsha Qundao and the relevant maritime areas, among others.
38. In April 1988, the Seventh National People's Congress decided at its First Session to establish Hainan Province with jurisdiction over Xisha Qundao, Nansha Qundao and Zhongsha Qundao and the relevant maritime areas, among others.
39. In February 1992, China promulgated the Law of the People's Republic of China on the Territorial Sea and the Contiguous Zone, establishing China's basic system of territorial sea and contiguous zone. This Law explicitly states: "The land territory of the People's Republic of China includes […] Dongsha Qundao; Xisha Qundao; Zhongsha Qundao; Nansha Qundao; as well as all the other islands belonging to the People's Republic of China." In May 1996, the Standing Committee of the Eighth National People's Congress made the decision at its Nineteenth Session to ratify UNCLOS, and at the same time declared that, "The People's Republic of China reaffirms its sovereignty over all its archipelagoes and islands as listed in Article 2 of the Law of the People's Republic of China on the Territorial Sea and the Contiguous Zone which was promulgated on 25 February 1992."
40. In May 1996, the Chinese government announced the baselines of the part of the territorial sea adjacent to the mainland which are composed of all the straight lines joining the 49 adjacent base points from Gaojiao of Shandong to Junbijiao of Hainan Dao, as well as the baselines of the territorial sea adjacent to Xisha Qundao which are composed of all the straight lines joining the 28 adjacent base points, and declared it would announce the remaining baselines of the territorial sea at another time.
41. In June 1998, China promulgated the Law of the People's Republic of China on the Exclusive Economic Zone and the Continental Shelf, establishing China's basic system of exclusive economic zone and continental shelf. This Law explicitly states: "The provisions in this Law shall not affect the historic rights that the People's Republic of China enjoys."
42. In June 2012, the State Council approved the abolition of the Office of Xisha Qundao, Nansha Qundao and Zhongsha Qundao and the simultaneous establishment of prefecture-level Sansha City with jurisdiction over Xisha Qundao, Nansha Qundao and Zhongsha Qundao and the relevant waters.
43. China attaches great importance to ecological and fishery resource preservation in the South China Sea. In 1999, China began to enforce summer fishing moratorium in the South China Sea and has done so since that time. By the end of 2015, China had established six national aquatic biological nature reserves and six such reserves at provincial level, covering a total area of 2.69 million hectares, as well as seven national aquatic germplasm resources conservation areas with a total area of 1.28 million hectares.
44. Since the 1950s, the Taiwan authorities of China have maintained a military presence on Taiping Dao of Nansha Qundao. For a long time, they have also maintained civil service and administration bodies and carried out natural resources development on the island.
iii. China's sovereignty over Nanhai Zhudao is widely acknowledged in the international community
45. After the end of the Second World War, China recovered and resumed the exercise of sovereignty over Nanhai Zhudao. Many countries recognize that Nanhai Zhudao are part of China's territory.
46. In 1951, it was decided at the San Francisco Peace Conference that Japan would renounce all right, title and claim to Nansha Qundao and Xisha Qundao. In 1952, the Japanese government officially stated that it had renounced all right, title, and claim to Taiwan, Penghu, as well as Nansha Qundao and Xisha Qundao. In the same year, Xisha Qundao and Nansha Qundao, which Japan renounced under the San Francisco Peace Treaty, together with Dongsha Qundao and Zhongsha Qundao, were all marked as belonging to China on the 15th map, Southeast Asia, of the Standard World Atlas recommended by the then Japanese Foreign Minister Katsuo Okazaki with his signature.
47. In October 1955, the International Civil Aviation Organization held a conference in Manila, which was attended by representatives from the United States, the United Kingdom, France, Japan, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Thailand, the Philippines, the authorities from South Vietnam and China's Taiwan authorities. The Filipino and French representatives served as chair and vice chair respectively. It was requested in Resolution No. 24 adopted at the conference that China's Taiwan authorities should enhance meteorological observation on Nansha Qundao, and no opposition or reservation was registered.
48. On 4 September 1958, the Chinese government promulgated the Declaration of the Government of the People's Republic of China on China's Territorial Sea, proclaiming a twelve-nautical-mile territorial sea breadth, and stipulating that, "This provision applies to all territories of the People's Republic of China, including [...] Dongsha Qundao, Xisha Qundao, Zhongsha Qundao, Nansha Qundao, and all other islands belonging to China." On 14 September, Prime Minister Pham Van Dong of the Vietnamese government sent a diplomatic note to Zhou Enlai, Premier of the State Council of China, solemnly stating that "the government of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam recognizes and supports the declaration of the government of the People's Republic of China on its decision concerning China's territorial sea made on 4 September 1958" and "the government of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam respects this decision."
49. In August 1956, First Secretary Donald E. Webster of the United States institution in Taiwan made an oral request to China's Taiwan authorities for permission for the United States military personnel to conduct geodetic survey in Huangyan Dao, Shuangzi Qunjiao, Jinghong Dao, Hongxiu Dao and Nanwei Dao of Zhongsha Qundao and Nansha Qundao. China's Taiwan authorities later approved the above request.
50. In December 1960, the United States government sent a letter to China's Taiwan authorities to "request permission be granted" for its military personnel to carry out survey at Shuangzi Qunjiao, Jinghong Dao and Nanwei Dao of Nansha Qundao. China's Taiwan authorities approved this application.
51. In 1972, Japan reiterated its adherence to the terms of Article 8 of the Potsdam Proclamation in the Joint Communiqué of the Government of the People's Republic of China and the Government of Japan.
52. It was reported by AFP that, on 4 February 1974, the then Indonesian Foreign Minister Adam Malik stated that, "si nous regardons les cartes actuelles, elles montrent que les deux archipels des Paracels [Xisha Qundao] et des Spratleys [Nansha Qundao] appartiennent à la Chine", and that because we recognize the existence of only one China, "cela signifie que, pour nous, ces archipels appartiennent à la République populaire de Chine".
53. The 14th Assembly of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, held from 17 March to 1 April 1987, deliberated on the Global Sea-Level Observing System Implementation Plan 1985-1990 (IOC/INF-663 REV) submitted by the Commission's Secretariat. The Plan integrated Xisha Qundao and Nansha Qundao into the Global Sea-Level Observing System, and explicitly listed these two Islands under "People's Republic of China". For the implementation of this Plan, the Chinese government was commissioned to build five marine observation stations, including one on Nansha Qundao and one on Xisha Qundao.
54. Nanhai Zhudao have long been widely recognized by the international community as part of China's territory. The encyclopedias, yearbooks and maps published in many countries mark Nansha Qundao as belonging to China. For example this is done in, among others, the 1960 Worldmark Encyclopedia of the Nations by the Worldmark Press published in the United States, the 1966 New China Yearbook by the Far Eastern Booksellers published in Japan; the Welt-Atlas published in 1957, 1958 and 1961 in the Federal Republic of Germany, the 1958 Atlas Zur Erd-Und L?nderkunde and the 1968 Haack Gro?er Weltatlas published in the German Democratic Republic, the Atlas Mira from 1954 to 1959 and the 1957 Administrativno-territorialnoe Delenie Zarubezhnyh Stran published in the Soviet Union, the 1959 Világatlasz and the 1974 Képes Politikai és Gazdasági Világatlasz published in Hungary, the 1959 Maly Atlas Sv?ta published in Czechoslovakia, the 1977 Atlas Geografic Scolar published in Romania, the 1965 Atlas international Larousse politique et économique, the 1969 Atlas moderne Larousse published by Libraire Larousse in France, the maps in the 1972 and 1983 World Encyclopedia, the 1985 Grand Atlas World by Heibon Sha, and the 1980 Sekai to Sono Kunikuni published by Japan Geographic Data Center in Japan.

引用 Damein 2016-7-14 01:00
II. Origin of the Relevant Disputes Between China and the Philippines in the South China Sea
55. The core of the relevant disputes between China and the Philippines in the South China Sea lies in the territorial issues caused by the Philippines' invasion and illegal occupation of some islands and reefs of China's Nansha Qundao. In addition, with the development of the international law of the sea, a maritime delimitation dispute also arose between the two states regarding certain sea areas of the South China Sea.
i. The Philippines' invasion and illegal occupation caused disputes with China over some islands and reefs of Nansha Qundao
56. The territory of the Philippines is defined by a series of international treaties, including the 1898 Treaty of Peace between the United States of America and the Kingdom of Spain (the Treaty of Paris), the 1900 Treaty between the United States of America and the Kingdom of Spain for Cession of Outlying Islands of the Philippines (the Treaty of Washington), and the 1930 Convention between His Majesty in Respect of the United Kingdom and the President of the United States regarding the Boundary between the State of North Borneo and the Philippine Archipelago.
57. The Philippines' territory so defined has nothing to do with China's Nanhai Zhudao.
58. In the 1950s, the Philippines attempted to take moves on China's Nansha Qundao but eventually stopped because of China's firm opposition. In May 1956, Tomás Cloma, a Filipino, organized a private expedition to some islands and reefs of Nansha Qundao and unlawfully named them "Freedomland". Afterwards, Philippine Vice President and Foreign Minister Carlos Garcia expressed support for Cloma's activities. In response, the spokesperson of the Chinese Foreign Ministry issued a stern statement on 29 May, pointing out that Nansha Qundao "has always been a part of China's territory. The People's Republic of China has indisputable sovereignty over these islands [...] and will never tolerate the infringement of its sovereignty by any country with any means and under any excuse." At the same time, China's Taiwan authorities sent troops to patrol Nansha Qundao and resumed stationing troops on Taiping Dao. Afterward, the Philippine Department of Foreign Affairs said that the government of the Philippines did not know about Cloma's activities or give him the consent before he took his moves.
59. Starting in the 1970s, the Philippines invaded and illegally occupied by force some islands and reefs of China's Nansha Qundao and raised illegal territorial claims. The Philippines invaded and illegally occupied Mahuan Dao and Feixin Dao in August and September 1970, Nanyao Dao and Zhongye Dao in April 1971, Xiyue Dao and Beizi Dao in July 1971, Shuanghuang Shazhou in March 1978 and Siling Jiao in July 1980. In June 1978, Philippine President Ferdinand Marcos signed Presidential Decree No. 1596, which designated some islands and reefs of China's Nansha Qundao and large areas of their surrounding waters as "Kalayaan Island Group" ("Kalayaan" in Tagalog means "Freedom"), set up "Municipality of Kalayaan" and illegally included them in the Philippine territory.
60. The Philippines has also enacted a series of national laws to lay its own claims of territorial sea, exclusive economic zone and continental shelf, part of which conflicted with China's maritime rights and interests in the South China Sea.
61. The Philippines has concocted many excuses to cover up its invasion and illegal occupation of some islands and reefs of China's Nansha Qundao in order to pursue its territorial pretensions. For instance, it claims that: "Kalayaan Island Group" is not part of Nansha Qundao but terra nullius; Nansha Qundao became "trust territory" after the end of the Second World War; the Philippines has occupied Nansha Qundao because of "contiguity or proximity" and out of "national security" considerations; "some islands and reefs of Nansha Qundao are located in the exclusive economic zone and continental shelf of the Philippines"; the Philippines' "effective control" over the relevant islands and reefs has become the "status quo" that cannot be changed.
ii. The Philippines' illegal claim has no historical or legal basis
62. The Philippines' territorial claim over part of Nansha Qundao is groundless from the perspectives of either history or international law.
63. First, Nansha Qundao has never been part of the Philippine territory. The territorial scope of the Philippines has already been defined by a series of international treaties. The United States, administrator of the Philippines at the relevant time, was clearly aware of these facts. On 12 August 1933, ex-Senator Isabelo de los Reyes of the United States-governed Philippines wrote a letter to Governor-General Frank Murphy in an attempt to claim that some Nansha islands formed part of the Philippine Archipelago on the ground of geographical proximity. That letter was referred to the Department of War and the Department of State. On 9 October, the United States Secretary of State replied that, "These islands [...] lie at a considerable distance outside the limits of the Philippine Islands which were acquired from Spain in 1898". In May 1935, the United States Secretary of War George Dern wrote a letter to Secretary of State Cordell Hull, seeking the views of the State Department on the "validity and propriety" of the Philippines' territorial claims over some islands of Nansha Qundao. A memorandum of the Office of Historical Adviser in the State Department, signed by S.W. Boggs, pointed out that, "There is, of course, no basis for a claim on the part of the United States, as islands constituting part of the Philippine Archipelago". On 20 August, Secretary Hull officially replied in writing to Secretary Dern, stating that, "the islands of the Philippine group which the United States acquired from Spain by the treaty of 1898, were only those within the limits described in Article III", and that, referring to the relevant Nansha islands, "It may be observed that [...] no mention has been found of Spain having exercised sovereignty over, or having laid claim to, any of these islands". All these documents prove that the Philippines' territory never includes any part of Nanhai Zhudao, a fact that has been recognized by the international community, including the United States.
64. Second, the claim that "Kalayaan Island Group" is "terra nullius" discovered by the Philippines is groundless. The Philippines claims that its nationals "discovered" the islands in 1956, and uses this as an excuse to single out some islands and reefs of China's Nansha Qundao and name them "Kalayaan Island Group". This is an attempt to create confusion over geographical names and concepts, and dismember China's Nansha Qundao. As a matter of fact, the geographical scope of Nansha Qundao is clear, and the so-called "Kalayaan Island Group" is part of China's Nansha Qundao. Nansha Qundao has long been an integral part of China's territory and is by no means "terra nullius".
65. Third, Nansha Qundao is not "trust territory" either. The Philippines claims that after the Second World War, Nansha Qundao became "trust territory", the sovereignty over which was undetermined. This claim finds no support in law or reality. The post-War trust territories were all specifically listed in relevant international treaties or the documents of the United Nations Trusteeship Council. Nansha Qundao was never included in them and was thus not trust territory at all.
66. Fourth, neither "contiguity or proximity" nor national security is a basis under international law for acquiring territory. Many countries have territories far away from their metropolitan areas, in some cases even very close to the shores of other countries. When exercising colonial rule over the Philippines, the United States had a dispute with the Netherlands regarding sovereignty over an island which is close to the Philippine Archipelago, and the United States' claim on the basis of contiguity was ruled as having no foundation in international law. Furthermore, it is just absurd to invade and occupy the territory of other countries on the ground of national security.
67. Fifth, the Philippines claims that some islands and reefs of China's Nansha Qundao are located within its exclusive economic zone and continental shelf and therefore should fall under its sovereignty or form part of its continental shelf. This is an attempt to use maritime jurisdiction provided for under UNCLOS to deny China's territorial sovereignty. This runs directly counter to the "land dominates the sea" principle, and goes against the purpose of UNCLOS, as stated in its preamble, to "establish [...] with due regard for the sovereignty of all States, a legal order for the seas and ocean". Therefore, a coastal state can only claim maritime jurisdiction under the precondition of respecting the territorial sovereignty of another state. No state can extend its maritime jurisdiction to an area under the sovereignty of another; still less can it use such jurisdiction as an excuse to deny another state's sovereignty or even to infringe upon its territory.
68. Sixth, the Philippines' so-called "effective control" on the basis of its illegal seizure is null and void. The international community does not recognize "effective control" created through occupation by force. The Philippines' "effective control" is mere occupation by naked use of force of some islands and reefs of China's Nansha Qundao. Such occupation violates the Charter of the United Nations and the basic norms governing international relations and is unequivocally prohibited by international law. This so-called "effective control" based on illegal seizure cannot change the basic fact that Nansha Qundao is China's territory. China firmly opposes any attempt to treat the seizure of some islands and reefs of China's Nansha Qundao as a so-called "fait accompli" or "status quo". China will never recognize such a thing.
iii. The development of the international law of the sea gave rise to the dispute between China and the Philippines over maritime delimitation
69. With the formulation and entering into effect of UNCLOS, the relevant disputes between China and the Philippines in the South China Sea have gradually intensified.
70. Based on the practice of the Chinese people and the Chinese government in the long course of history and the position consistently upheld by successive Chinese governments, and pursuant to China's national law and under international law, including the 1958 Declaration of the Government of the People's Republic of China on China's Territorial Sea, the 1992 Law of the People's Republic of China on the Territorial Sea and the Contiguous Zone, the 1996 Decision of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China on the Ratification of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, the 1998 Law of the People's Republic of China on the Exclusive Economic Zone and the Continental Shelf, and the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, China has, based on Nanhai Zhudao, internal waters, territorial sea, contiguous zone, exclusive economic zone and continental shelf. In addition, China has historic rights in the South China Sea.
71. The Philippines proclaimed its internal waters, archipelagic waters, territorial sea, exclusive economic zone and continental shelf according to, among others, the Philippines' Republic Act No. 387 of 1949, Republic Act No. 3046 of 1961, Republic Act No. 5446 and Presidential Proclamation No. 370 of 1968, Presidential Decree No. 1599 of 1978, and Republic Act No. 9522 of 2009.
72. In the South China Sea, China and the Philippines are states possessing land territory with opposite coasts, the distance between which is less than 400 nautical miles. The maritime areas claimed by the two states overlap, giving rise to a dispute over maritime delimitation.

引用 Damein 2016-7-14 01:01
III. China and the Philippines Have Reached Consensus on Settling Their Relevant Disputes in the South China Sea
73. China firmly upholds its sovereignty over Nanhai Zhudao, resolutely opposes the Philippines' invasion and illegal occupation of China's islands and reefs, and resolutely opposes the unilateral acts taken by the Philippines on the pretext of enforcing its own claims to infringe China's rights and interests in waters under China's jurisdiction. Still, in the interest of sustaining peace and stability in the South China Sea, China has exercised great restraint, stayed committed to peacefully settling the disputes with the Philippines in the South China Sea, and made tireless efforts to this end. China has conducted consultations with the Philippines on managing maritime differences and promoting practical maritime cooperation, and the two sides have reached important consensus on settling through negotiation relevant disputes in the South China Sea and properly managing relevant disputes.
i. It is the consensus and commitment of China and the Philippines to settle through negotiation their relevant disputes in the South China Sea
74. China has dedicated itself to fostering friendly relations with all countries on the basis of the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence, namely, mutual respect for sovereignty and territorial integrity, mutual non-aggression, non-interference in each other's internal affairs, equality and mutual benefit, and peaceful coexistence.
75. In June 1975, China and the Philippines normalized their relations, and in the joint communiqué for that purpose, the two governments agreed to settle all disputes by peaceful means without resorting to the threat or use of force.
76. In fact, China's initiative of "pursuing joint development while shelving disputes" regarding the South China Sea issue was first addressed to the Philippines. In a June 1986 meeting with Philippine Vice President Salvador Laurel, Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping pointed out that Nansha Qundao belongs to China, and when referring to the matter of differences, stated that, "This issue can be shelved for now. Several years later, we can sit down and work out a solution that is acceptable to all in a calm manner. We shall not let this issue stand in the way of our friendly relations with the Philippines and with other countries." In April 1988, when meeting with Philippine President Corazón Aquino, Deng Xiaoping reiterated that "with regard to the issue concerning Nansha Qundao, China has the biggest say. Nansha Qundao has been part of China's territory throughout history, and no one has ever expressed objection to this for quite some time"; and "For the sake of the friendship between our two countries, we can shelve the issue for now and pursue joint development". Since then, when handling the relevant South China Sea issue and developing bilateral ties with other littoral countries around the South China Sea, China has all along acted in keeping with Deng Xiaoping's idea: "sovereignty belongs to China, disputes can be shelved, and we can pursue joint development".
77. Since the 1980s, China has put forward a series of proposals and initiatives for managing and settling through negotiation disputes with the Philippines in the South China Sea and reiterated repeatedly its sovereignty over Nansha Qundao, its position on peacefully settling the relevant disputes and its initiative of "pursuing joint development while shelving disputes". China has expressed its clear opposition to intervention by outside forces and attempts to multilateralize the South China Sea issue and emphasized that the relevant disputes should not affect bilateral relations.
78. In July 1992, the 25th ASEAN Foreign Ministers Meeting held in Manila adopted the ASEAN Declaration on the South China Sea. China expressed appreciation for relevant principles outlined in that Declaration. China stated that it has all along stood for peacefully settling through negotiation the territorial issues relating to part of Nansha Qundao and opposed the use of force, and is ready to enter into negotiation with countries concerned on implementing the principle of "pursuing joint development while shelving disputes" when conditions are ripe.
79. In August 1995, China and the Philippines issued the Joint Statement between the People's Republic of China and the Republic of the Philippines concerning Consultations on the South China Sea and on Other Areas of Cooperation in which they agreed that "[d]isputes shall be settled by the countries directly concerned" and that "a gradual and progressive process of cooperation shall be adopted with a view to eventually negotiating a settlement of the bilateral disputes." Subsequently, China and the Philippines reaffirmed their consensus on settling the South China Sea issue through bilateral negotiation and consultation in a number of bilateral documents, such as the March 1999 Joint Statement of the China-Philippines Experts Group Meeting on Confidence-Building Measures and the May 2000 Joint Statement between the Government of the People's Republic of China and the Government of the Republic of the Philippines on the Framework of Bilateral Cooperation in the Twenty-First Century.
80. In November 2002, China and the ten ASEAN Member States signed the DOC in which the parties solemnly "undertake to resolve their territorial and jurisdictional disputes by peaceful means, without resorting to the threat or use of force, through friendly consultations and negotiations by sovereign states directly concerned, in accordance with universally recognized principles of international law, including the 1982 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea".
81. Afterwards, China and the Philippines reaffirmed this solemn commitment they had made in the DOC in a number of bilateral documents, such as the September 2004 Joint Press Statement between the Government of the People's Republic of China and the Government of the Republic of the Philippines and the September 2011 Joint Statement between the People's Republic of China and the Republic of the Philippines.
82. The relevant provisions in all the aforementioned bilateral instruments and the DOC embody the following consensus and commitment between China and the Philippines on settling the relevant disputes in the South China Sea: first, the relevant disputes shall be settled between sovereign states directly concerned; second, the relevant disputes shall be peacefully settled through negotiation and consultation on the basis of equality and mutual respect; and third, sovereign states directly concerned shall "eventually negotiat[e] a settlement of the bilateral disputes" in accordance with universally recognized principles of international law, including the 1982 UNCLOS.
83. By repeatedly reaffirming negotiations as the means for settling relevant disputes, and by repeatedly emphasizing that negotiations be conducted by sovereign states directly concerned, the above-mentioned provisions obviously have produced the effect of excluding any means of third party settlement. In particular, the 1995 Joint Statement provides for "eventually negotiating a settlement of the bilateral disputes". The term "eventually" in this context clearly serves to emphasize that "negotiations" is the only means the parties have chosen for dispute settlement, to the exclusion of any other means including third party settlement procedures. The above consensus and commitment constitutes an agreement between the two states excluding third-party dispute settlement as a way to settle relevant disputes in the South China Sea between China and the Philippines. This agreement must be observed.
ii. It is the consensus of China and the Philippines to properly manage relevant disputes in the South China Sea
84. It is China's consistent position that, the relevant parties should establish and improve rules and mechanisms, and pursue practical cooperation and joint development, so as to manage disputes in the South China Sea, and to foster a good atmosphere for their final resolution.
85. Since the 1990s, China and the Philippines have reached the following consensus on managing their disputes: first, they will exercise restraint in handling relevant disputes and refrain from taking actions that may lead to an escalation; second, they will stay committed to managing disputes through bilateral consultation mechanisms; third, they commit themselves to pursuing practical maritime cooperation and joint development; and fourth, the relevant disputes should not affect the healthy growth of bilateral relations and peace and stability in the South China Sea region.
86. In the DOC, China and the Philippines also reached the following consensus: to exercise self-restraint in the conduct of activities that would complicate or escalate disputes and affect peace and stability; to intensify efforts, pending the peaceful settlement of territorial and jurisdictional disputes, to seek ways, in the spirit of cooperation and understanding, to build trust and confidence; and to explore or undertake cooperative activities including marine environmental protection, marine scientific research, safety of navigation and communication at sea, search and rescue operation and combating transnational crime.
87. China and the Philippines have made some progress in managing their differences and conducting practical maritime cooperation.
88. During the first China-Philippines Experts Group Meeting on Confidence-Building Measures held in March 1999, the two sides issued a joint statement, pointing out that, "the two sides agreed that the dispute should be peacefully settled through consultation in accordance with the generally-accepted principles of international law including the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, [... and to] exercise self-restraint and not to take actions that might escalate the situation."
89. In the Joint Press Statement of the Third China-Philippines Experts Group Meeting on Confidence-Building Measures released in April 2001, it is stated that, "the two sides noted that the bilateral consultation mechanism to explore ways of cooperation in the South China Sea has been effective. The series of understanding and consensus reached by the two sides have played a constructive role in the maintenance of the sound development of China-Philippines relations and peace and stability of the South China Sea area."
90. In September 2004, in the presence of the leaders of China and the Philippines, China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC) and Philippine National Oil Company (PNOC) signed the Agreement for Joint Marine Seismic Undertaking in Certain Areas in the South China Sea. In March 2005, national oil companies from China, the Philippines and Vietnam signed, with the consent of both China and the Philippines, the Tripartite Agreement for Joint Marine Seismic Undertaking in the Agreement Area in the South China Sea. It was agreed that during an agreement term of three year-period, these oil companies should collect and process certain amount of 2D and/or 3D seismic lines in the agreement area covering about 143,000 square kilometers, re-process certain amount of existing 2D seismic lines, and study and assess the oil resources in the area. The 2007 Joint Statement of the People's Republic of China and the Republic of the Philippines states that, "both sides agree that the tripartite joint marine seismic undertaking in the South China Sea serves as a model for cooperation in the region. They agreed that possible next steps for cooperation among the three parties should be explored to bring collaboration to a higher level and increase the momentum of trust and confidence in the region."
91. Regrettably, due to the lack of willingness for cooperation from the Philippine side, the China-Philippines Experts Group Meeting on Confidence-Building Measures has stalled, and the China-Philippines-Vietnam tripartite marine seismic undertaking has failed to move forward.

引用 Damein 2016-7-14 01:03
IV. The Philippines Has Repeatedly Taken Moves that Complicate the Relevant Disputes
92. Since the 1980s, the Philippines has repeatedly taken moves that complicate the relevant disputes.
i. The Philippines attempts to entrench its illegal occupation of some islands and reefs of China's Nansha Qundao
93. In China's Nansha Qundao, the Philippines started in the 1980s to build military facilities on some islands and reefs it has invaded and illegally occupied. In the 1990s, the Philippines continued to build airfields and naval and air force facilities on these illegally-occupied islands and reefs; centered on Zhongye Dao, the construction has extended to other islands and reefs, with runways, military barracks, docks and other facilities built and renovated, so as to accommodate heavy transport planes, fighter jets and more and larger vessels. Furthermore, the Philippines made deliberate provocations by frequently sending its military vessels and aircraft to intrude into Wufang Jiao, Xian'e Jiao, Xinyi Jiao, Banyue Jiao and Ren'ai Jiao of China's Nansha Qundao, and destroyed survey markers set up by China.
94. Still worse, on 9 May 1999, the Philippines sent BRP Sierra Madre (LT-57), a military vessel, to intrude into China's Ren'ai Jiao and illegally ran it aground on the pretext of "technical difficulties". China immediately made solemn representations to the Philippines, demanding the immediate removal of that vessel. But the Philippines claimed that the vessel could not be towed away for "lack of parts".
95. Over this matter, China has repeatedly made representations to the Philippines and renewed the same demand. For instance, in November 1999, the Chinese Ambassador to the Philippines met with Secretary of Foreign Affairs Domingo Siazon and Chief of the Presidential Management Staff Leonora de Jesus to make another round of representations. Many times the Philippines promised to tow away the vessel, but it has taken no action.
96. In September 2003, upon the news that the Philippines was preparing to build facilities around that military vessel illegally run aground at Ren'ai Jiao, China lodged immediate representations. The Philippine Acting Secretary of Foreign Affairs Franklin Ebdalin responded that the Philippines had no intention to construct facilities on Ren'ai Jiao and that, as a signatory to the DOC, the Philippines had no desire to and would not be the first to violate the Declaration.
97. But the Philippines did not fulfill its undertaking to tow away that vessel. Instead, it made even worse provocations. In February 2013, cables were lined up around that grounded vessel and people on board bustled around, making preparations for the construction of permanent facilities. In response to China's repeated representations, the Philippine Secretary of National Defense Voltaire Gazmin claimed that the Philippines was simply resupplying and repairing the vessel, and promised that no facilities would be built on Ren'ai Jiao.
98. On 14 March 2014, the Philippine Department of Foreign Affairs issued a statement openly declaring that the vessel it ran aground at Ren'ai Jiao was placed there as a permanent Philippine government installation. This was an apparent attempt to provide an excuse for its continued refusal to fulfill its undertaking to tow away that vessel in order to illegally seize Ren'ai Jiao. China immediately responded that it was shocked by this statement and reiterated that it would never allow the Philippines to seize Ren'ai Jiao by any means.
99. In July 2015, the Philippines stated publicly that the so-called maintenance repair was being done to fortify the vessel.
100. To sum up, by running aground its military vessel at Ren'ai Jiao, then promising repeatedly to tow it away but breaking that promise repeatedly and even fortifying it, the Philippines has proven itself to be the first to openly violate the DOC.
101. Over the years, the Philippines has invaded and illegally occupied some islands and reefs of China's Nansha Qundao and constructed various military facilities thereupon in an attempt to establish a fait accompli of permanent occupation. These moves have grossly violated China's sovereignty over the relevant islands and reefs of Nansha Qundao and violated the Charter of the United Nations and basic norms of international law.
ii. The Philippines has increasingly intensified its infringement of China's maritime rights and interests
102. Since the 1970s, the Philippines, asserting its unilateral claims, has intruded into, among others, the maritime areas of Liyue Tan and Zhongxiao Tan of China's Nansha Qundao to carry out illegal oil and gas exploratory drilling, including listing the relevant blocks for bidding.
103. Since 2000, the Philippines has expanded the areas for bidding, intruding into larger sea areas of China's Nansha Qundao. A large span of sea areas of China's Nansha Qundao was designated as bidding blocks by the Philippines in 2003. During the fifth "Philippine Energy Contracting Round" launched in May 2014, four of the bidding blocks on offer reached into relevant sea areas of China's Nansha Qundao.
104. The Philippines has repeatedly intruded into relevant waters of China's Nansha Qundao, harassing and attacking Chinese fishermen and fishing boats conducting routine fishing operations. Currently available statistics show that from 1989 to 2015, 97 incidents occurred in which the Philippines infringed upon the safety, life and property of Chinese fishermen: 8 involving shooting, 34 assault and robbery, 40 capture and detention, and 15 chasing. These incidents brought adverse consequences to close to 200 Chinese fishing vessels and over 1,000 Chinese fishermen. In addition, the Philippines treated Chinese fishermen in a violent, cruel and inhumane manner.
105. Philippine armed personnel often use excessive force against Chinese fishermen in utter disregard of the safety of their lives. For example, on 27 April 2006, one armed Philippine fishing vessel intruded into Nanfang Qiantan of China's Nansha Qundao and attacked Chinese fishing boat Qiongqionghai 03012. One Philippine armed motor boat carrying four gunmen approached that Chinese fishing boat. Immediately these gunmen fired several rounds of bullets at the driving panel, killing Chen Yichao and three other Chinese fishermen on the spot, severely wounding two others and causing minor injuries to another. Subsequently a total of 13 gunmen forced their way onboard the Chinese fishing boat and seized satellite navigation and communication equipment, fishing equipment and harvests and other items.
106. The Philippines has repeatedly infringed China's maritime rights and interests in an attempt to expand and entrench its illegal claims in the South China Sea. These actions have grossly violated China's sovereignty and rights and interests in the South China Sea. By doing so, the Philippines has seriously violated its own commitment made under the DOC to exercise self-restraint in the conduct of activities that would complicate or escalate disputes. By firing upon Chinese fishing boats and fishermen, illegally seizing and detaining Chinese fishermen, giving them inhumane treatment and robbing them of their property, the Philippines has gravely infringed upon the personal and property safety and the dignity of Chinese fishermen and blatantly trampled on their basic human rights.
iii. The Philippines also has territorial pretensions on China's Huangyan Dao
107. The Philippines also has territorial pretensions on China's Huangyan Dao and attempted to occupy it illegally.
108. Huangyan Dao is China's inherent territory, over which China has continuously, peacefully and effectively exercised sovereignty and jurisdiction.
109. Before 1997, the Philippines had never challenged China's sovereignty over Huangyan Dao, nor had it laid any territorial claim to it. On 5 February 1990, Philippine Ambassador to Germany Bienvenido A. Tan, Jr. stated in a letter to German HAM radio amateur Dieter L?ffler that, "According to the Philippine National Mapping and Resource Information Authority, the Scarborough Reef or Huangyan Dao does not fall within the territorial sovereignty of the Philippines."
110. A "Certification of Territorial Boundary of the Republic of the Philippines", issued by the Philippine National Mapping and Resource Information Authority on 28 October 1994, stated that "the territorial boundaries and sovereignty of the Republic of the Philippines are established in Article III of the Treaty of Paris signed on December 10, 1898", and confirmed that the "Territorial Limits shown in the official Map No. 25 issued by the Department of Environment and Natural Resources through the National Mapping and Resource Information Authority, are fully correct and show the actual status". As described above, the Treaty of Paris and other two treaties define the territorial limits of the Philippines, and China's Huangyan Dao clearly lies outside those limits. Philippine Official Map No. 25 reflects this. In a letter dated 18 November 1994 to the American Radio Relay League, Inc., the Philippine Amateur Radio Association, Inc. wrote that, "one very important fact remains, the national agency concerned had stated that based on Article III of the Treaty of Paris signed on December 10, 1898, Scarborough Reef lies just outside the territorial boundaries of the Philippines".
111. In April 1997, the Philippines turned its back on its previous position that Huangyan Dao is not part of the Philippine territory. The Philippines tracked, monitored and disrupted an international radio expedition on Huangyan Dao organized by the Chinese Radio Sports Association. In disregard of historical facts, the Philippines laid its territorial claim to Huangyan Dao on the grounds that it is located within the 200-nautical-mile exclusive economic zone claimed by the Philippines. In this regard, China made representations several times to the Philippines, pointing out explicitly that Huangyan Dao is China's inherent territory and that the Philippines' claim is groundless, illegal and void.
112. On 17 February 2009, the Philippine Congress passed Republic Act No. 9522. That act illegally includes into the Philippines' territory China's Huangyan Dao and some islands and reefs of Nansha Qundao. China immediately made representations to the Philippines and issued a statement, reiterating China's sovereignty over Huangyan Dao, Nansha Qundao and the adjacent waters, and declaring in explicit terms that any territorial claim over them made by any other country is illegal and void.
113. On 10 April 2012, the Philippines' naval vessel BRP Gregorio del Pilar (PF-15) intruded into the adjacent waters of China's Huangyan Dao, illegally seized Chinese fishermen and fishing boats operating there and treated the fishermen in a grossly inhumane manner, thus deliberately causing the Huangyan Dao Incident. In response to the Philippines' provocation, China immediately made multiple strong representations to Philippine officials in Beijing and Manila to protest the Philippines' violation of China's territorial sovereignty and harsh treatment of Chinese fishermen, and demanded that the Philippines immediately withdraw all its vessels and personnel. The Chinese government also promptly dispatched China Maritime Surveillance and China Fisheries Law Enforcement vessels to Huangyan Dao to protect China's sovereignty and rescue the Chinese fishermen. In June 2012, after firm representations repeatedly made by China, the Philippines withdrew relevant vessels and personnel from Huangyan Dao.
114. The Philippines' claim of sovereignty over China's Huangyan Dao is completely baseless under international law. The illegal claim that "Huangyan Dao is within the Phlippines' 200-nautical-mile exclusive economic zone so it is Philippine territory" is a preposterous and deliberate distortion of international law. By sending its naval vessel to intrude into Huangyan Dao's adjacent waters, the Philippines grossly violated China's territorial sovereignty, the Charter of the United Nations and fundamental principles of international law. By instigating mass intrusion of its vessels and personnel into waters of Huangyan Dao, the Philippines blatantly violated China's sovereignty and sovereign rights therein. The Philippines' illegal seizure of Chinese fishermen engaged in normal operations in waters of Huangyan Dao and the subsequent inhumane treatment of them are gross violations of their dignity and human rights.
iv. The Philippines' unilateral initiation of arbitration is an act of bad faith
115. On 22 January 2013, the then government of the Republic of the Philippines unilaterally initiated the South China Sea arbitration. In doing so, the Philippines has turned its back on the consensus reached and repeatedly reaffirmed by China and the Philippines to settle through negotiation the relevant disputes in the South China Sea and violated its own solemn commitment in the DOC. Deliberately packaging the relevant disputes as mere issues concerning the interpretation or application of UNCLOS while knowing full well that territorial disputes are not subject to UNCLOS and that maritime delimitation disputes have been excluded from the UNCLOS compulsory dispute settlement procedures by China's 2006 declaration, the Philippines has wantonly abused the UNCLOS dispute settlement procedures. This initiation of arbitration aims not to settle its disputes with China, but to deny China's territorial sovereignty and maritime rights and interests in the South China Sea. This course of conduct is taken out of bad faith.
116. First, by unilaterally initiating arbitration, the Philippines has violated its standing agreement with China to settle the relevant disputes through bilateral negotiation. In relevant bilateral documents, China and the Philippines have agreed to settle through negotiation their disputes in the South China Sea and reaffirmed this agreement many times. China and the Philippines made solemn commitment in the DOC to settle through negotiation relevant disputes in the South China Sea, which has been repeatedly affirmed in bilateral documents. The above bilateral documents between China and the Philippines and relevant provisions in the DOC are mutually reinforcing and constitute an agreement in this regard between the two states. By this agreement, they have chosen to settle the relevant disputes through negotiation and to exclude any third party procedure, including arbitration. Pacta sunt servanda. This fundamental norm of international law must be observed. The Philippines' breach of its own solemn commitment is a deliberate act of bad faith. Such an act does not generate any right for the Philippines, nor does it impose any obligation on China.
117. Second, by unilaterally initiating arbitration, the Philippines has violated China's right to choose means of dispute settlement of its own will as a state party to UNCLOS. Article 280 of Part XV of UNCLOS stipulates: "Nothing in this Part impairs the right of any States Parties to agree at any time to settle a dispute between them concerning the interpretation or application of this Convention by any peaceful means of their own choice." Article 281 of UNCLOS provides: "If the States Parties which are parties to a dispute concerning the interpretation or application of this Convention have agreed to seek settlement of the dispute by a peaceful means of their own choice, the procedures provided for in this Part apply only where no settlement has been reached by recourse to such means and the agreement between the parties does not exclude any further procedure". Given that China and the Philippines have made an unequivocal choice to settle through negotiation the relevant disputes, the compulsory third-party dispute settlement procedures under UNCLOS do not apply.
118. Third, by unilaterally initiating arbitration, the Philippines has abused the UNCLOS dispute settlement procedures. The essence of the subject-matter of the arbitration initiated by the Philippines is an issue of territorial sovereignty over some islands and reefs of Nansha Qundao, and the resolution of the relevant matters also constitutes an integral part of maritime delimitation between China and the Philippines. Land territorial issues are not regulated by UNCLOS. In 2006, pursuant to Article 298 of UNCLOS, China made an optional exceptions declaration excluding from the compulsory dispute settlement procedures of UNCLOS disputes concerning, among others, maritime delimitation, historic bays or titles, military and law enforcement activities. Such declarations made by about 30 states, including China, form an integral part of the UNCLOS dispute settlement mechanism. By camouflaging its submissions, the Philippines deliberately circumvented the optional exceptions declaration made by China and the limitation that land territorial disputes are not subject to UNCLOS, and unilaterally initiated the arbitration. This course of conduct constitutes an abuse of the UNCLOS dispute settlement procedures.
119. Fourth, in order to push forward the arbitral proceedings, the Philippines has distorted facts, misinterpreted laws and concocted a pack of lies:
— The Philippines, fully aware that its submissions concern China's territorial sovereignty in the South China Sea, and that territorial issue is not subject to UNCLOS, deliberately mischaracterizes and packages the relevant issue as those concerning the interpretation or application of UNCLOS;
— The Philippines, fully aware that its submissions concern maritime delimitation, and that China has made an declaration, pursuant to Article 298 of UNCLOS, excluding disputes concerning, among others, maritime delimitation from the UNCLOS third-party dispute settlement procedures, intentionally detaches the diverse factors that shall be taken into consideration in the process of a maritime delimitation and treat them in an isolated way, in order to circumvent China's optional exceptions declaration;
— The Philippines deliberately misrepresents certain consultations with China on maritime affairs and cooperation, all of a general nature, as negotiations over the subject-matters of the arbitration, and further claims that bilateral negotiations therefore have been exhausted, despite the fact that the two states have never engaged in any negotiation on those subject-matters;
— The Philippines claims that it does not seek a determination of any territorial issue or a delimitation of any maritime boundary, and yet many times in the course of the arbitral proceedings, especially during the oral hearings, it denies China's territorial sovereignty and maritime rights and interests in the South China Sea;
— The Philippines turns a blind eye to China's consistent position and practice on the South China Sea issue, and makes a completely false assertion that China lays an exclusive claim of maritime rights and interests to the entire South China Sea;
— The Philippines exaggerates Western colonialists' role in the South China Sea in history and denies the historical facts and corresponding legal effect of China's longstanding exploration, exploitation and administration in history of relevant waters of the South China Sea;
— The Philippines puts together some remotely relevant and woefully weak pieces of evidence and makes far-fetched inferences to support its submissions;
— The Philippines, in order to make out its claims, arbitrarily interprets rules of international law, and resorts to highly controversial legal cases and unauthoritative personal opinions in large quantity.
120. In short, the Philippines' unilateral initiation of arbitration contravenes international law including the UNCLOS dispute settlement mechanism. The Arbitral Tribunal in the South China Sea arbitration established at the Philippines' unilateral request has, ab initio, no jurisdiction, and awards rendered by it are null and void and have no binding force. China's territorial sovereignty and maritime rights and interests in the South China Sea shall under no circumstances be affected by those awards. China does not accept or recognize those awards. China opposes and will never accept any claim or action based on those awards.

引用 Damein 2016-7-14 01:04
V. China's Policy on the South China Sea Issue
121. China is an important force for maintaining peace and stability in the South China Sea. It abides by the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations and is committed to upholding and promoting international rule of law. It respects and acts in accordance with international law. While firmly safeguarding its territorial sovereignty and maritime rights and interests, China adheres to the position of settling disputes through negotiation and consultation and managing differences through rules and mechanisms. China endeavors to achieve win-win outcomes through mutually beneficial cooperation, and is committed to making the South China Sea a sea of peace, cooperation and friendship.
122. China is committed to maintaining peace and stability in the South China Sea with other countries in the region and upholding the freedom of navigation and overflight in the South China Sea enjoyed by other countries under international law. China urges countries outside this region to respect the efforts in this regard by countries in the region and to play a constructive role in maintaining peace and stability in the South China Sea.
i. On the territorial issues concerning Nansha Qundao
123. China is firm in upholding its sovereignty over Nanhai Zhudao and their surrounding waters. Some countries have made illegal territorial claims over and occupied by force some islands and reefs of Nansha Qundao. These illegal claims and occupation constitute gross violations of the Charter of the United Nations and basic norms governing international relations. They are null and void. China consistently and resolutely opposes such actions and demands that relevant states stop their violation of China's territory.
124. China has spared no efforts to settle, on the basis of respecting historical facts, relevant disputes with the Philippines and other countries directly concerned, through negotiation in accordance with international law.
125. It is universally recognized that land territorial issues are not regulated by UNCLOS. Thus, the territorial issue in Nansha Qundao is not subject to UNCLOS.
ii. On maritime delimitation in the South China Sea
126. China maintains that the issue of maritime delimitation in the South China Sea should be settled equitably through negotiation with countries directly concerned in accordance with international law, including UNCLOS. Pending the final settlement of this issue, all relevant parties must exercise self-restraint in the conduct of activities that may complicate or escalate disputes and affect peace and stability.
127. When ratifying UNCLOS in 1996, China stated that, "The People's Republic of China will effect, through consultations, the delimitation of the boundary of the maritime jurisdiction with the States with coasts opposite or adjacent to China respectively on the basis of international law and in accordance with the principle of equitability." China's positions in this regard are further elaborated in the 1998 Law of the People's Republic of China on the Exclusive Economic Zone and the Continental Shelf. This Law provides that, "The People's Republic of China shall determine the delimitation of its exclusive economic zone and continental shelf in respect of the overlapping claims by agreement with the states with opposite or adjacent coasts, in accordance with the principle of equitability and on the basis of international law", and that, "The provisions in this law shall not affect the historical rights that the People's Republic of China has been enjoying ever since the days of the past".
128. China does not accept any unilateral action attempting to enforce maritime claims against China. Nor does China recognize any action that may jeopardize its maritime rights and interests in the South China Sea.
iii. On the ways and means of dispute settlement
129. Based on an in-depth understanding of international practice and its own rich practice, China firmly believes that no matter what mechanism or means is chosen for settling disputes between any countries, the consent of states concerned should be the basis of that choice, and the will of sovereign states should not be violated.
130. On issues concerning territory and maritime delimitation, China does not accept any means of dispute settlement imposed on it, nor does it accept any recourse to third-party settlement. On 25 August 2006, China deposited, pursuant to Article 298 of UNCLOS, with the Secretary-General of the United Nations a declaration, stating that, "The Government of the People's Republic of China does not accept any of the procedures provided for in Section 2 of Part XV of the Convention with respect to all the categories of disputes referred to in paragraph 1 (a), (b) and (c) of Article 298 of the Convention". This explicitly excludes from UNCLOS compulsory dispute settlement procedures disputes concerning maritime delimitation, historic bays or titles, military and law enforcement activities, and disputes in respect of which the Security Council of the United Nations is exercising the functions assigned to it by the Charter of the United Nations.
131. Since its founding, the People's Republic of China has signed boundary treaties with 12 of its 14 land neighbors through bilateral negotiations and consultations in a spirit of equality and mutual understanding, and about 90% of China's land boundaries have been delimited and demarcated. China and Vietnam have delimited through negotiations the boundary between their territorial seas, exclusive economic zones and continental shelves in the Beibu Bay. China's sincerity in settling disputes through negotiation and its unremitting efforts made in this respect are known to all. It is self-evident that negotiation directly reflects the will of states. The parties directly participate in the formulation of the result. Practice demonstrates that a negotiated outcome will better gain the understanding and support of the people of countries concerned, will be effectively implemented and will be durable. Only when an agreement is reached by parties concerned through negotiation on an equal footing can a dispute be settled once and for all, and this will ensure the full and effective implementation of the agreement.
iv. On managing differences and engaging in practical maritime cooperation in the South China Sea
132. In keeping with international law and practice, pending final settlement of maritime disputes, the states concerned should exercise restraint and make every effort to enter into provisional arrangements of a practical nature, including establishing and improving dispute management rules and mechanisms, engaging in cooperation in various sectors, and promoting joint development while shelving differences, so as to uphold peace and stability in the South China Sea region and create conditions for the final settlement of disputes. Relevant cooperation and joint development are without prejudice to the final delimitation.
133. China works actively to promote the establishment of bilateral maritime consultation mechanisms with relevant states, explores joint development in areas such as fishery, oil and gas, and champions the active exploration by relevant countries in establishing a cooperation mechanism among the South China Sea coastal states in accordance with relevant provisions of UNCLOS.
134. China is always dedicated to working with ASEAN Member States to fully and effectively implement the DOC and actively promote practical maritime cooperation. Together the Parties have already achieved "Early Harvest Measures", including the "Hotline Platform on Search and Rescue among China and ASEAN Member States", the "Senior Officials' Hotline Platform in Response to Maritime Emergencies among Ministries of Foreign Affairs of China and ASEAN Member States", as well as the "Table-top Exercise of Search and Rescue among China and ASEAN Member States".
135. China consistently maintains that the Parties should push forward consultations on a "Code of Conduct" (COC) under the framework of full and effective implementation of the DOC, with a view to achieving an early conclusion on the basis of consensus. In order to properly manage risks at sea, pending the final conclusion of a COC, China proposed the adoption of "Preventive Measures to Manage Risks at Sea". This proposal has been unanimously accepted by all ASEAN Member States.
v. On freedom and safety of navigation in the South China Sea
136. China is committed to upholding the freedom of navigation and overflight enjoyed by all states under international law, and ensuring the safety of sea lanes of communication.
137. The South China Sea is home to a number of important sea lanes, which are among the main navigation routes for China's foreign trade and energy import. Ensuring freedom of navigation and overflight and safety of sea lanes in the South China Sea is crucial to China. Over the years, China has worked with ASEAN Member States to ensure unimpeded access to and safety of the sea lanes in the South China Sea and made important contribution to this collective endeavor. The freedom of navigation and overflight enjoyed by all states in the South China Sea under international law has never been a problem.
138. China has actively provided international public goods and made every effort to provide services, such as navigation and navigational aids, search and rescue, as well as sea conditions and meteorological forecast, through capacity building in various areas, so as to uphold and promote the safety of sea lanes in the South China Sea.
139. China maintains that, when exercising freedom of navigation and overflight in the South China Sea, relevant parties shall fully respect the sovereignty and security interests of coastal states and abide by the laws and regulations enacted by coastal states in accordance with UNCLOS and other rules of international law.
vi. On jointly upholding peace and stability in the South China Sea
140. China maintains that peace and stability in the South China Sea should be jointly upheld by China and ASEAN Member States.
141. China pursues peaceful development and adheres to a defense policy that is defensive in nature. China champions a new security vision featuring mutual trust, mutual benefit, equality and coordination, and pursues a foreign policy of building friendship and partnership with its neighbors and of fostering an amicable, secure and prosperous neighborhood based on the principle of amity, sincerity, mutual benefit and inclusiveness. China is a staunch force for upholding peace and stability and advancing cooperation and development in the South China Sea. China is committed to strengthening good-neighborliness and promoting practical cooperation with its neighbors and regional organizations including ASEAN to deliver mutual benefit.
142. The South China Sea is a bridge of communication and a bond of peace, friendship, cooperation and development between China and its neighbors. Peace and stability in the South China Sea is vital to the security, development and prosperity of the countries and the well-being of the people in the region. To realize peace, stability, prosperity and development in the South China Sea region is the shared aspiration and responsibility of China and ASEAN Member States, and serves the common interests of all countries.
143. China will continue to make unremitting efforts to achieve this goal.

引用 野馬頭 2016-7-14 09:01
準備打仗,保家衛國!
引用 dkzxzwm 2016-7-14 09:54
如果我國在南海沖裁案后,無所作為,中國大國地位蕩然無存。
引用 ttfttf 2016-7-14 15:09
這白皮書為何一定要取名“堅持通過談判解決”?不知當年林沖是否發表過“堅持通過談判解決娘子問題”的白皮書?

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